Saturday, January 26, 2013


balance of payments;  a record of a country’s trade in goods, services, and financial assets with the rest of the world

balance of trade ; the balance on the merchandise account in the U.S. balance of payments; the balance on the merchandise account in a nation’s balance of payments

ban ; making the buying or selling of an item illegal

base year ; the year against which other years are measured

budget deficit ; the shortage that results when government spending is greater than revenue

budget surplus ; the excess that results when government spending is less than revenue

business cycle ; the recurrent pattern of rising real GDP followed by falling real GDP; pattern of rising real GDP followed by falling real GDP

capital products ; such as machinery and equipment that are used in production; the equipment, machines, and buildings used to produce goods and services

capital consumption allowance;  the estimated value of depreciation plus the value of accidental damage to capital stock

cartel ; an organization of independent firms whose purpose is to control and limit production and maintain or increase prices and profits; an organization of independent producers that dictates the quantities produced by each member of the organization

circular flow diagram ; a model showing the flow of output and income from one sector to another (9)

coincident indicator ; a variable that changes at the same time that real output changes

collusion ; the practice by rivals to limit competition by agreeing not to lower prices or to work together to limit entry by others

commercial policy ; government policy that influences international trade flows

commodity goods;  perceived to be identical no matter who supplies them

comparative advantage ; the ability to produce a good or service at a lower opportunity cost than someone else

compensating wage differential ; wage differences that make up for the higher risk or poorer working conditions of one job over another; wage differences due to different risks or job characteristics

complementary goods ; goods that are used together [as the price of one rises, the demand for the other falls]; items that are used together [as the price of one rises, demand for the other falls]

consumer price index (CPI);  a measure of the average price of goods and services purchased by the typical household

consumer surplus ; the difference between what the consumer is willing to pay for a unit of a good and the price that the consumer actually has to pay; the difference between what consumers would be willing to pay and what they have to pay to purchase some item

consumption ; household spending

cost of living adjustment (COLA);  an increase in wages that is designed to match increases in prices of items purchased by the typical household

cost-plus markup pricing;  a pricing policy whereby a firm computes its average cost of producing a product and then sets the price at some percentage above this cost; a price set by adding an amount to the per-unit cost of producing and supplying a good or service

cost-push inflation;  inflation caused by rising costs of production

creative destruction ; the process of competition whereby old, inefficient, or obsolete goods, services, and resources are driven out of business as new or efficient technologies and goods and services arise

credit ; available savings that are lent to borrowers to spend

crowding out ; a drop in consumption or investment spending caused by government spending

currency substitution ; the use of foreign money as a substitute for domestic money when the domestic money has a high rate of inflation; the use of foreign currency as a substitute for domestic money when the domestic economy has a high rate of inflation

current account ; the sum of the merchandise, services, investment income, and unilateral transfers accounts in the balance of payments.