Showing posts with label GEOGRAPHY. Show all posts
Showing posts with label GEOGRAPHY. Show all posts

Friday, January 6, 2017


Group I
·         Deputy Collector.
·         Deputy Superintendent of Police (Category-I).
·         Deputy Registrar of Co-operative Societies.
·         Assistant Director of Rural Development Department.
·         Assistant Commissioner in the Tamil Nadu Hindu Religious and Charitable Endowments Administration Department.
·         Assistant Commissioner – Commercial Tax officer.
·         District Registrar.
·         Divisional Officer in Fire and Rescue services Department.
·         Assistant Conservator of Forest.
·         District Employment Officer.
Group II Services (Interview post)
·         Deputy Commercial Tax Officer (DCTO).
·         Sub Registrar.
·         Probation Officer in Prison Department.
·         Assistant Inspector of Labout.
·         Junior Employment Officer.
·         Assistant Section Officer in Law Department/ TNPSC/ Finance Department/Various Departments in the Tamil Nadu Ministerial Service/Secretariat Service.
·         Assistant Inspector in Local Fund Audit Department.
·         Special Assistant in the Vigilance and AntiCorruption Department.
·         Audit Inspector in the Audit wing of Hindu Religious and Charitable Endowments.
·         Supervisor of Industrial Co-operatives.
·         Senior Inspector of cooperative societies.

Group II Services (Non Interview post)
·         Accountant in Treasuries and Accounts Department.
·         Assistant in Forest Department.
·         Personal clerk in Finance Department, Secretariat.
·         Personal clerk in (other than Law and Finance Dept) Secretariat.
·         Personal Clerk in Tamil Nadu Public Service Commission.
·         Personal Clerk in Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly.
·         Assistant in various Departments in the Tamil Nadu Ministerial Service/Secretariat Service/Legislative Assembly Secretariat Service.
·         Assistant in the Divisions of Commercial Taxes Department.
·         Handloom Inspector.
·         Revenue Assistant in Revenue Department.
Group IV
·         Junior Assistant.
·         Typist.
·         Steno Typist − Grade III.
·         EXECUTIVE OFFICER, GRADE-III in the Tamil Nadu Hindu Religious and Charitable Endowments Administration Department.
·         Junior Assistant (Security).
·         Bill Collector Grade-I.

·         Junior Assistant (Non-Security).

Wednesday, April 3, 2013

Rivers & Countries

Nelson - Issuing from NE of Lake Winnipeg & flowing to Hudson Bay.

Kolyma - N-E Siberia

Olenek - Nothern Siberian region

Don - Fourth largest in Europe. Rises near Tula & flows to Sea of Azov

Pechora - Rises in Urals & flows into Arctic

Liao - Liaoning province of China

Fraser - British Columbia (Canada).

Loire - The longest river in France

Daugava - Rises in Russia, Belarus, Latvia & then into Gulf of Riga

Tagus - Spain

Neman River - Belarus & flows into Baltic Sea

Ebro - Spain

Garonne - Spain

James River - Virginia, United States

Waikato - New Zealand’s longest river

Merrimack - N. E. United States.

Islands & the Controlling Nation

Denmark - Bornholm, Faeroe Islands, Greenland

Estonia - Hiiuma, Saarema

Finland - Aland Islands

France - Corsica, Martinique, Reunion, Kerguelen (North of Antactica)

Germany - Helgoland

Greece - Crete,

Italy - Sardinia, Sicily

Norway - Svalbard

Portugal - Azores, Madeira

Spain - Balearic Islands, Canary islands

Sweden - Gotland

United Kingdom - Isle of Man, Orkney Islands, Shetland Islands, Western Isles, South Sandwich , Falkland Island, Ascension Island, Bermuda.

Mountain Chains

1. Pindhos Mountains - Greece

2. Dinaric Alps - Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia Herz., Serbia & Montenegro

3. Carpathians - Slovakia & Romania

4. Balkan Mountains - North of Rhodopi Mountains in Bulgaria

5. Rhodopi Mountains - Bulgaria

6. Matopo Hills - South western Zimbabwe

Important Lakes

1. Lake Tana - Ethiopia. Source of Blue Nile. Not formed by rift valley

2. Lake Alberta - Border of Uganda, DRC

3. Lake Assal - Sudan Ethiopia border. Lowest point of Africa

4. Lake Biwa - Japan’s Largest lake near Nagoya

5. Lake Zaysan - Kazhakstan

6. Lake Tonle Sab - Cambodia

7. Lake Toba - Sumatra (Crater)

Important Industrial Centres

1. Muroran - Iron & Steel - Hokaido, Japan

2. Birmingham - Iron & Steel - U.K.

3. Houston - Oil Refinery - USA

4. Windsor - Automobile - Canada (on Detroit river)

5. Westphalia - Iron & Steel  -Germany

6. Shenyang  -Iron & Steel  -China (Pittsburg of China)

7. Kyoto - Handicrafts & Toys - Japan

8. Milan - Textile - Italy

9. Turin - Automobile - Italy

10. Leipzig - Optical Insruments - Germany

11. Sarnia - Oil Refinery - Canada (East of Michigan)

12. Akron - Synthetic Rubber - South of Lake Erie (Ohio)

13. Chelyabinsk - Iron & Steel - North of Magnitogorsk

14. Nagoya - Ship Building - Japan

15. Multan - Pottery - Pakistan (E of Ganganagar)

Famous Dams/Falls

1. Aswan Dam - Nile - Egypt

2. Kariba Dam - Zambezi - Zambia & Zimbabwe

3. Kainji Dam - Niger - Nigeria

4. Boyoma Dam - Zaire - Congo

5. Aksombo Dam (Volta Dam) - Volta - Ghana

6. Victoria Falls - Zambezi - Zambia & Zimbabwe

7. Owen Falls - Lake Alberta (White Nile) - Uganda

8. Stanley Falls - Zaire - Congo

Famous Mining Regions

1. Lumbabshi - Copper - Zaire

2. Wankee - Coal - Zimbabwe

3. Kasia - Diamond - Zaire

4. Rustenberg -  Platinum - S.Africa

5. Mt. Tom Price - Iron Ore - Australia (Hamersley Ranges)

6. Ipswich - Coal & Lignite - Australia (Near Brisbane)

7. Hubei - Coal - China

8. Kansu (or Gansu) - Bauxite - China

9. Daqing - Crude Oil - China (Heilongjiang province)

10. Dakang - Crude Oil - China

11. Chauk - Crude Oil - Burma

Miscellaneous Geographical Features

1. Cape York Peninsula - Northern Australia to the east of Gulf of Carpentra. Weipa (Bauxite) also lies in the same peninsula on the Carpen

2. Kanto/Kwanto Plain - The largest area of flat land in Japan comprising Tokyo & other cities.

3. Ungava Peninsula - Canada – East of Hudson Bay & south of Baffin Island.

4. Odessa - Leading port of Ukraine in North Black Sea

5. Far East - Japan, Korea, China & Taiwan

6. Indo-China - India, China, Malaysia, Myanmar, Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam & Laos

7. South East Asia - Myanmar, Malaysia, Thialand, Singapore, Cambodia, Vietnam, Laos, Indonesia, Philipinnes.

8. Middle East - South west Asia & North Eastern Egypt.

9. Deepest Lake - Lake Baikal

10. Largest manmade lake - Lake Volga

11. Irrawady river - Flows into bay of Bengal

12. Mekong river - Drains into South China Sea

13. Red River - Gulf of Tonkin

14. Salween River - Gulf of Martaban.

15. Macao - Administrative region of China, on China’s southeastern coast

16. Isle of Man (U.K.) - Midway between the coasts of Northern Ireland and England

17. Harbin - Capital of Heilongjiang province

18. Bandung - Java (Indonesia).

19. Sapporo - Hokkaido

20. Kra Isthmus - Narrowest point on the Malay Peninsula, in Thailand

21. Larut Plain - Malaysia

22. Bangka Island - lying east of Sumatra, Indonesia. Famous for Tin mining & separated from Sumatra by Bangka strait.

Miscellaneous Facts - Geographer

1. Ritter & Humboldt both died in the year 1859, the same year in which Darwin published his “Origin of Species”.

2. Greeks are often given credit for their monopoly in speculation. Mathematical geography attracted most of the Arab geographers. Ibn Batuta described Morocco as having best climate.

3. Busching belonged to the Political Statistical School. Leyer suggested the natural boundaries for regional studies. The idea of German-centered Europe was given by Nauman. Kjellen was one the most famous Swedish political geographer.

4. The use of natural geography rather than political boundaries for the description of regional geography is known as Reine Geography. Bauche initiated this approach, Getterer divided the whole world into natural regions. Hommeyer implemented this approach & Zeune brought more sophistication in it in that he delimited regions even on the basis of climate, vegetation, etc.

5. Peter Kropotkin & V.V. Dokuchaiev were important geographers of the Russian school of thought.

6. The Cultural or social determinism popular among American geographers. Edward Ullman is a strong
proponent of this theory.

7. Schaefer (1953) in his paper titled, “Exceptionalism in Geography” in which he criticized exceptionalists & asked geographers to adopt methodology of scientific positivism. Hartshorne met this criticism by writing, ‘Perspectives on the nature of Geography’ in which he stuck to his chorological concept of Geography. The result was adoption of nomothetic approach in geography.

8. Areal Differentiation is also known as “Chorology” or “Chorography”.

9. Voluntarism is one of the latest approaches in geography which states that human mode of life depends upon his interaction with his environment. It considers man as a modifier of nature.

10. The heartland (or Pivot Area) theory was given by Mackinder. Heartland referred to Eastern Europe. Mackinder considered the eastern & western side of the Atlantic to be complimentary to each other.

11. The Rimland theory was given by Nicholas Spykman. Rimland referred to the rimland of Eurasia. This theory considered that the key to the supremacy of the world lies in a combination of land power & sea power.

12. Froebel was a staunch opponent of the Comparative method. He said that no one place or mountain can be compared with others as they are not alike. He also rejected teleological view.

13. Marco Polo was an Italian. Bartholomew Diaz, was a Portuguese navigator who discovered Cape of good hope. Columbus was Italian & Vasco de Gama was Portuguese. Balboa (Spanish) crossed the Isthmus of Panama & became the first European to see the Pacific. James Cook (England) made three Pacific Voyages: First to Tahiti, second to New Zealand & third to Hawaii. Francis Champlain established Quebec City as the first French colony in Canada. Magellan & Francis Drake took the journey of the whole world.

14. The term ‘Compage’ was use by Whittlesey means a total region is distinguished by a community of feeling among its inhabitants as well as by all features of the physical & biotic environment.

15. L.D. Stamp carried out the land utilization survey in Great Britain. Torsten Haggerstand developed the stochastic model apart from spatial diffusion of innovation & migration studies (Sweden).

16. Genre de vie means genre of living i.e. same pattern of living. Regional synthesis is associated with B.J.L. Berry who wrote ‘Approaches to regional analysis: A synthesis’. Teleology is opposite to causal

17. Topophilia was coined by Yi-Fu Tuan to denote all the effective ties & love of a human being for his material environment.

18. Edward Ackerman was an American geographer who encouraged his students to take up quantitative approach wrote, ‘Where is the research frontier’.

Monday, April 1, 2013

Some Important Straits & Gulfs

1. Bass Strait - Australia & Tasmania

2. Torres Strait - Australia & New Guinea

3. Cook Strait - North Island & South Island in New Zealand

4. Dardanelles Strait - Aegean Sea & Sea of Marmara

5. Davis Strait - North Atlantic Ocean and Baffin Bay, NE Canada

6. Juan de Fuca Strait - Washington and southern Vancouver, Canada

7. Kerch Strait - Sea of Azov & Black Sea

8. Mackinac Strait - Lake Michigan & Lake Huron

9. Magellan Strait - South American mainland & island of Tierra del Fuego

10. Makassar Strait - Borneo & Sulawesi.

11. Messina Strait - Italy & Sicily

12. Sunda Strait - Java & Sumatra

13. Bonifacio Strait - Corsica Island (France) & Italian island of Sardinia (south).

14. Dover strait - England & France. Connecting English Channel & North Sea.

15. Soya Strait - Sakhalin to the North & Hokkaido to the south.

16. Tsushima Strait - Korea & Kyushu

17. Tsugaru Strait - Hokkaido & Honshu

18. Kii Strait - Honshu & Shikoku

19. Strait of Otranto - Connecting the Adriatic with the Ionian Sea. Italy & Greece.

20. Strait of Hormuz - Persian Gulf & Gulf of Oman

21. Strait of Tiran - Gulf of Aqaba to the Red Sea.

22. Tsugaru Strait - Between Hokkaido & Honshu.

23. Johor Strait - Singapore & Malay Peninsula

24. Gulf of Carpentera - Cape York Peninsula & Arnhem Land

25. Gulf of Bothnia - Arm of Baltic Sea between Finland & Sweden.

26. Gulf of Lion - Arm of Mediterranean Sea in Southern France

27. Gulf of Martaban - South of Myanmar. Salween flows into it.

28. Gulf of Sidra - North of Libya. Inlet of Mediterranean.

29. Gulf of Tonkin - South of China & East of Vietnam

30. Gulf of Mannar - India & Srilanka. Tambraparni from India & Aruvi Aru from Srilanka flows into it.

31. Spencer Gulf - East of Adeilade.

32. Gulf of Bo Hai - West of Korea.

Imaginary Lines & the countries through which they pass

Tropic of Cancer - Hawaii, Mexico, Bahamas, Western Sahara, Mauritania, Mali, Algeria, Niger, Libya, Chad (northern most point), Egypt, Saudi Arabia, UAE, Oman, India, Bangladesh, Myanmar, China, Taiwan

Equator - Ecuador, Colombia, Brazil, Sao Tome & Principe, Gabon, Congo, DR of Congo, Uganda, Kenya, Somalia, Maldives, Indonesia, and Kiribati.

Tropic of Capricon - Brazil, Paraguay, Argentina, Chile, French Polynesia, Australia, Madagascar, Mozambique, South Africa, Botswana, Namibia

Miscellaneous Facts: WORLD II

1. Congo River is also known as River Zaire.

2. Altai Mountains extend from the headwaters of the Ob’ and Irtysh rivers in southern Siberia in Russia, into Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China and into Mongolia. The mountain range extending from northern California to British Columbia is called Cascades. Mt. Rainier near Seattle is its highest point. The loftiest mountain range in USA is Sierra Nevada. The Cambrian mountains are located in Wales.

3. Giants Causeway is located on the coast of northern Ireland. It is thought by geologists to have formed when an ancient lava flow cooled and solidified.

4. The major peninsulas of Russia starting from west to east are Kola peninsula, Kanin peninsula, Yamal
peninsula, Gyda peninsula & Taymyr peninsula.

5. Buryat Republic lies north of central Monglia. It is the homeland of buryats.

6. The deserts of Western Australia from North to South are Tanami Desert, Great Sandy desert, Gibson desert & Great Victoria desert. Simpson desert lies in the central region north of L. Eyre.

7. San Diego city lies in the extreme southwest corner of California just above Mexico. Las Vegas lies in Nevada state & near Mojave Desert. Wellington, Capital of New Zealand comes under West European type of climate. In New Zealand the southern island is more developed compared to the northern. In china type of climate precipitation is around 100 cm & well distributed throughout the year. Marine west European climate experiences rainier winters than summers.

8. The climate of steppes can be summarized by hot summers and cold winters, averaging 30 cm of rain every year. The world's largest zone of steppes is found in central Russia and neighbouring republics of Central Asia

9. Langley is a unit equal to one gram calorie per square centimeter of irradiated surface, used to measuresolar radiation

10. Baotou is in inner Mongolia, China & is known for iron & steel complex. Caracas, Capital of Venezuela comes under monsoon type of climate. Sao Paulo has China type of Climate. Adelaide has Mediterranean type of climate.

11. Khyber pass in Pakistan is located in the Hindu Kush range. It links Peshawar in Pakistan with Jalalabad in Afghanistan, where it connects to a route leading to the Afghan capital of Kabul. The route of the Bolan Pass links Quetta in Baluchistan Province with Kandahar in Afghanistan. Peshawar, Islamabad, Rawalpindi, Sialkot, Gujranwala & Lahore are from north to south in N. Pakistan.

12. Peurto Rico Trench is the deepest in Atlantic.

13. Liechtenstein, independent principality in central Europe; bounded on the east by Austria, and on the
south, west, and north by Switzerland. Malta is an independent republic, south of Sicily. San Marino,
republic in southern Europe, an enclave in northern Italy

14. Irtish River is the 9th longest in the world & has its source in Altai Mountains Russia.

15. Montego Bay is in Jamaica where the Sea Law Treaty was signed.

16. Rio de la Plata is the estuary formed from the combination of Uruguay River & the Parana River.

17. Andesite line marks the boundary between continental shelf & continental slope. Indian Ocean was
known to the Greeks as Erythraean sea.

18. Zambia is an important producer of Copper & Zimbabwe is known for gold. Qeshm is the only island of Iran & lies in the strait of Hormuz. It is the biggest island in the Persian Gulf.

19. A person born in Puerto Rico is a US citizen. Atlantic Ocean is the roughest of all oceans. Its coastline is larger than those of Pacific & Indian Ocean put together. It receives more fresh water than any other ocean.

20. Prague is situated on the bank of river Vltava. Madrid (Manzarenes), Dublin (Liffey) & Rotterdam (Rhine, Maas & Scheldt).

21. Tuaregs are the tribal people of the Sahara. They speak a Berber language called Tamarshak.

22. California (Sunkist), Spain (Seviue), Tangier (Tangerine), China & Japan (Mandarin) are the various varieties of oranges.

23. Pustaz are temperate grasslands of Hungary. The cattle kept by the Masai are the ‘zebu’ cattle.

24. Big Inch (Gulf of Mexico to NE US), Tap Line (Gulf & Arabian Peninsula to Mediterranean) &
COMECOM (Urals & Volga to East Europe) are some of the important pipelines.

25. Birmingham is the second largest city in Britain. Aztecs & Mayas were flourished both in Mexico &
surrounding regions. Incas were in Peru & the Andes. Polygon of Drought in Brazil is the NE region.

26. Oil is found in Venezuela (Lake Marcaibo), Iraq (kirkuk, Mosul, Basra), S. Arabia (Ghawar, Dharan, Abaqaiq), Chechnya (Grozny), Russia (Sakhalin), Nigeria (Port Harcourt). Yadavaran is the largest is Iran’s largest on shore oilfield.

27. Mt. Logan is the highest peak of Canada. Mt. Toubkal is the highest peak of Atlas mountains.

28. Antwerp is the chief port and second largest city of Belgium. Kaohsiung (Southern Taiwan) is among the top five busiest sea ports of the world.

29. Mexico is the leading producer of silver, sulphur & fluorite. Denver is the capital of Colorado. Hudson Bay is the world’s largest inland sea.

30. Brazil shares its boundary with all except Chile & Ecuador. The highest active volcano in the world Mt. Ojas del Salado (Argentina Chile is in the Andes).

31. Trans Andean Railways connect Buenos Aires & Valpariso. European transcontinental railway runs from Paris to Warsaw. Orient express runs from Paris to Istanbul. The Canadian Pacific railway runs from Saint John in New Brunswick to Vancouver on the pacific coast. Canadian National Railway runs from Vancouver to Halifax

32. Blue Nile originates from Lake Tana in Ethiopian Island & White Nile From Lake Victoria. White Nile & Blue Nile meet at Khartoum, the capital of Sudan.

33. Port Said (Mediterranean) is towards North & Port Suez towards south (Red Sea).

34. The northwest countries of Morocco, Algeria & Tunisia are together called the ‘Maghreb’ which in Arabic means west. Oil Palm is an important agricultural product of Nigeria.

35. Botswana is the worlds largest producer of gem quality diamonds (jewellery diamonds).

36. Liberia is the largest producer of coffee & rubber in Africa.

37. Scandinavia applies to Norway, Sweden, Denmark & sometimes Iceland. Baltic states include Estonia, Latvia & Lithuania. Mont Blanc is situated on the French-Italian border.

38. Bavaria is the largest state of Germany & Munich is its capital. Kalinangrad is a part of Russia but
separated from it by Lithuania.

39. The Baltic is connected with the North Sea by the Nord-Ostsee-Kanal (the Kiel or Kaiser Wilhelm Canal). Murmansk is the only ice free port along the Arctic Ocean route to Vladivostok.

40. Two important varieties of Eucalyptus in Australia are Jarrah & Karri.

41. New Zealand generates 7 % of its energy from geysers. The highest peak of the country is Mt. Cook.

42. Amu Darya forms a part of the border between Afghanistan & Turkmenistan. The enormous desert that covers Turkmenistan is Karakum.

43. The Euphrates originates in Turkey & flows past Syria & Iraq before meeting the Tigris. The joint waters of Tigris & Euphrates are called Shat-al-Arab. The Tigris also originates from Turkey.

44. Hokkaido is connected to Honshu across Tsugaru strait by an under sea tunnel. Kurile Islands lie to the NE of Hokkaido & separate the sea of Okhotsk from the Pacific.

45. The top 5 countries in terms of Hydro power potential are China, Brazil, CIS, Canada & India. While the top 5 in installed capacity are USA, Canada, China, Brazil & Norway.

46. Chimborazo is the highest extinct volcano & lies in Ecuador.

47. Botswana has the highest prevalence rate of AIDs while South Africa has highest absolute number of AIDS patients followed by India.

48. The great channel separates the Andaman & Nicobar Island from Sumatra.

49. Hammerfest, town in Northern Norway is the northernmost town of Europe. Stromboli is known as “the light house of the Mediterranean”. Le Havre is a city in Normandy, northern France, on the English Channel, at the mouth of the Seine.

50. Granite rock is metamorphosed into schist rock.

51. Grand Coulee dam (USA) is on Columbia river & Cobora Basa Dam (Mozambique) is on Oragnbe river. Hoover Dam (USA) is on Colorado river.

52. Mixed farming refers to sowing two or more crops in mixture in the same field. Multiple cropping means the planting of two or more different crops on the same acreage for harvest within the same crop year.

53. Liverpool, city in northwestern England, on the Mersey River, near its mouth on the Irish Sea.

54. The following features are arranged in increasing geological age East African rift, Gulf of Aden, Atlantic Sea & Mediterranean sea.

55. The Pantanal is the world’s largest freshwater wetland in Brazil. Pripet marshes are large wetlands along Pripet river in Belarus. The Great Okefenokee Swamp is the largest swamp found in all of North America.

56. The Bie Plateau occupies most of central Angola & the Okavango river rises here. Huila plateau lies to its south.

57. The top 5 wind power generating countries are Germany, Spain, USA, India & Denmark.

58. A geyser erupts intermittently. Hot springs are more common than geysers & the former are not explosive in general.

59. Tibet is enclosed between Kunlun to the North & Himalayas to the south. Takla Makan desert, Tarim basin & Turfan basin all lie between Tien Shan range to the north & Kunlun to the south.

60. Strato Cones (Cotopaxi), Dormant Volcano (Vesuvius), Shield Volcano (Mt. Kilavea, Mt. Etna),
Composite cone. Examples of composite volcanoes include Mount Fuji (Japan), Mount St Helens (USA) and Mount Pinatubo (Philippines).

61. Cayman Trench, also called Bartlett Deep is a spreading ridge on the floor of the western Caribbean Sea between Jamaica and the Cayman Islands in the Atlantic Ocean.

62. The Russian cities from NW to SE are St. Petersburg, Moscow, Nizhny Novgorod (Gorky near Kazan), Magnitogorsk. Later from west to east Omsk, Novosibirsk, Novokuznetsk, Irkutsk, & Vladivostok.

63. Rostov (Gateway to Caucasus), St. Petersburg (largest port of Russia), Ivanovo (Machester of Russia) & Nizhny Novgorod (Detroit of Russia).

64. Mt. Rainier, Mt. Hood, Mt. Shasta are from North to South in NW USA. Polland is the world most
polluted country.

65. The Cocos plate lies to the west of Panama in the Pacific north of Nazca plate. Caribbean plate lies east of Panama in the Carribean region. Scotia plate lies to the south of South America.

66. Dead Sea, Lake Tanganyika, Lake Nyasa are all rift valley lakes but Lake Victoria is not. Mangala dam is in Pakistan over river Jhelum. Tarelad Dam, the earth’s larges earthern dam is in Pakistan. Columbia plateau is volcanic in origin. Ozark plateau is domed. Tibetan plateau is intermontane. The Finger Lakes are glacially formed lakes in upstate New York. Cayuga is the longest of the finger lakes.

67. Azores, Bermuda, Canary Island & Cape Verde Island is the sequence from North to South.

68. White Sea, Kara Sea, Laptev Sea, East Siberian sea lie in that order from west to east.

69. In Bangladesh when Tista joins Brahmaputra it is known as Jamuna. When later Ganga joins the
combined river is called Padma first & Meghna further downstream.

70. The mountain peaks in the Himalayas of Nepal going from west to east is Mt Api (W. Nepal), Mt
Dhaulagiri, Mt Annapurna, Mt Manaslu (Central Nepal) & Mt Gaurishankar, Mt Everest, Mt Makalu &
Mt Kanchenjunga (E. Nepal). Mt Pidurutalagala, the highest point in Sri Lanka.

71. Albania, Macedonia & Bulgaria lie to the North of Greece. Biskra depression is in Algeria.

72. Fremantle Doctor is a cooling afternoon sea breeze which occurs during summer months in coastal areas of Western Australia. The Guba wind occurs along the Papua coast (South of Papua New Guinea).

73. Forests cover 64 percent of Japan’s land area & it is one of the world’s largest importers of wood. The most densely populated province of Canada is Prince Edward Island. Klamath mountains are in California.

74. The lakes in Canada from North to south are Great Bear, Great Slave, Athabasca, Wollaston, Reindeer & Winnipeg. The cities of Canada along the St. Lawrence from North to South are Montreal, Ottawa, Toronto, Hamilton & Windsor. Sudbury lies to the north of Lake Huron.

75. Halifax (Nova Scotia), St. John (New Foundland) & Saint John (New Brunswick) are in Canada. The centre for steel industry in Canada is Hamilton. The city of Toronto is the largest in Canada followed by Montreal & Vancouver.

76. Basque people live along the Pyrenees in Spain. The Gap between the Pyrenees & the Central Massif is called the Belfort gap. The physical feature of France from North to south are Ardennes, Vosges, Jura & the Alps. Bohemian Forest is a highland region, rising mainly along the border between the Czech Republic and Germany, and also in Austria.

77. The southernmost of Japanese islands is Ryuku which lies to the south of Kyushu & North of Taiwan. Nagoya is the Detroit of Japan. Kitakyushu (Northern tip of Kyushu) is a conurbation of five cities. The most populous province of China is Sichuan.

78. Fushun, Shenyang (Formerly Mukden – Main industrial cluster of Manchuria) & Anshan are in that order from North to South all in Liaoning province. Lop Nor is famous for nuclear activity. Qaidam basin is to the north of Tibet plateau & to the south of Kunlun Mountains.

79. The Sea of Galilee is Israel's largest freshwater lake & lowest freshwater lake on Earth and the second lowest lake in the world after the Dead Sea. It is to the north of Dead Sea.

80. Ahaggar Mountains, also Hoggar Mountains, plateau region, southern Algeria, in the center of the Sahara. The major basin of Africa is El Djouf, now occupied by the Niger River Basin in West Africa. Karoo is a semidesert plateau regions in southern South Africa. Adamawa Plateau region, west central Africa, is in central Cameroon, extending into southeastern Nigeria and western Central African Republic. Futa Jallon, highland region in west central Guinea. Tibesti mountainous region of the central Sahara, in northern Chad, extending into northeastern Niger and southern Libya.

Various Geographical Institutes

1. Hydrographic Biological Commission - Scandinavia

2. Marine Biological Association - United Kingdom

3. Research Institute of Marine Fisheries - Canada

4. Coast & Geodetic Survey - United States

Oceanic Zones & Types of Deposits

Hamada - Bare rock or rock with a thin veneer of pebble (Arabic)

Reg - Desert pavement of loose stones (N. Africa)

Serir - Desert pavement of loose stones, coarser and older than reg (N. Africa)

Debba - Extensive sandy plain (N. Africa)

Erg - Vast region deeply covered with sand and topped by sand dunes (N. Africa)

Playa - Extremely flat, vegetation free area of silt or clay in the lowest part of a closed basin

Salina - Playa with saline water or kept moist by rising groundwater

Chott - Closed basin containing a dry lake or playa (N. African)

Clouds & Characteristics

Cirro Cumulus Mackerel Sky

Cirrus - Mare’s Tail (As they resemble horse’s tail)

Cumulus - Cauliflower Heads

Altostratus - Watery Look


Megatherms - Equatorial and tropical, tropical rain forests

Mesotherms - Tropical and sub tropical, tropical deciduous forests

Microtherms - Temperate and high altitude

Heskitotherms - Arctic and alpine regions

Sunday, March 31, 2013

American School of Thought

1. Jedidiah Morse - Father of American Geography.

2. W. Morris Davis (1850-1934 AD) - One of the founders of the ‘Association of American Geographers’ estd in 1904. Jefferson, Bowman, Huntington, Semple & Birmingham were some of his students. Coined the term ‘Ontography’ to denote the organic half of geography. He added subsequent, obsequent & resequent to Powell’s 3 types of rivers. Advocate of Darwinism

3. Mark Jefferson - Professor at the Michigan State normal college in Ypsilanti for 38 years. Never accepted the concept of determinism. Concept of ‘central place’, ‘primate city’ & ‘civilizing rails’.

4. Ellen Churchill Semple (1863-1932) - Disciple of Ratzel at Leipzig. Her first book was, ‘American history & its geographical conditions’. Her version of Ratzel’s Anthropogeographie was, ‘Influences of Geographical Environment’ Worked on Mediterranean region for about 20 years.

5. Ellsworth Huntington - Published, ‘The pulse of Asia’. Wrote, ‘Civilization & Climate’ in which he said that man’s civilization could develop only in regions of stimulating climate. His book, ‘Principles of Human Geography’ was a college textbook. Determinist in approach.

6. Isaiah Bowman - Thesis on ‘The geography of central Andes’. Pioneered boundary studies – ‘Guatemala-Honduras dispute’. Earlier determinist later possibilist.

7. Albert Parry Birmingham - Wrote ‘Geographic influences on American history’. He was critical of people making generalizations about climatic influences on humans.

8. Rollin D. Salisbury - Recognized as best teacher in the university. He published his ideas in ‘Physiography’.

9. Carl O Sauer - Activist of the possibilist ic movement . Protagonist of ‘Chorological Theme’. Published, ‘The morphology of the landscape’ in which he explained the concept of ‘Landschaft’. Did not deny

French School of Thought

1. Vidal de la Blache (1848-1918 AD) - Founder of Human Geography. ‘Pays’ as basic homogenous region to study as opposed to drainage basins. He developed the idea of ‘Terrestrial Unity’. Wrote, ‘Principles de Geographie Humaine’. Founded a journal called, ‘Annals de Geographie’.

2. Jean Brunhes - Gave the concept of “Terrestrial Harmonies’ – Man & his environment. Wrote ‘Geographie Humaine: Essai de classification positive’. He divided human geography into unproductive occupation of the soil, Plants & animal conquest & destructive exploitation.

3. Elise Reclus - Disciple of Carl Ritter & a determinist. Wrote ‘La Terra’.

4. De Martonne - Major work in physical geography. Son in law of Blache. Wrote ‘Traite de Geographique Physique’.

5. Camille Vallaux - Wrote ‘Les Sciences Geographiques’.

6. Albert Demangeon - Devoted most of the time to editing ‘Annals’. Wrote ‘Problems de Geographie Humaine”. Interested in rural settlements.

German School of Thought

1. Friedrich Ratzel (1844-1904 AD) - Worked at university of Munich & Leipzig. Application of Darwin’s concept to human species called ‘Social Darwinism’. Studied modes of life of Germans outside Germany. Published two books on N. America. ‘Anthropogeographie’ talked about the effects of different physical features on the life of people. Coined the term “Anthropogeography” Protagonist of Determinism. Wrote ‘Political Geography’ where he compared state to an organism & persuaded Germany to expand. It was his policy of ‘Lebensraum’ or living space that urged to expand-Organic
theory of State. It earned him the title of ‘founder of political geography’. He also gave the stages through which human society passes.

2. Oscar Peschel - First professor at university of Leipzig after Ritters death. Editor of ‘Das Ausland’ & wrote ‘Geschichte der Erdkunde’. Contributed very much to the development of geomorphology through a study of relief types.

3. Ferdinand Von Richthofen - First to identify “Loess” in China. His studies of China were published in
five volumes.

4. Alfred Hettner - Disciple of Ratzel & Richthofen. Revived the concept of geography as chorology. Published ‘Geography: Its history character & methods’. Supported Possibilism. Geography as “Landshatskunde” (landscape science) became popular during his period.

5. Otto Schluter - Hettner-Schluter controversy. It was Schluter who applied the term ‘Landshaftskunde’ to describe the concept of geography. He objected to chorological definition of geography.

6. Albrecht Penck - First use of the term ‘geomorphology’. Penck’s ideas inspired Koppen.

Pre-Modern Period Geographer

1. Cluvarius - German geographer of 17th century. Wrote introduction to universal geography. Emphasized & wrote on regional geog.

2. Varenius or Bernhard Varen (1622-1650) - German. Wrote Geographia Generalis. Laid down the foundation of the dichotomy of “Systematic Vs Regional Geography. Divided general or systematic geography into Absolute (terrestrial), Relative (Planetary-earth relationship with other parts) & the Comparative (location, navigation) parts. Advocated highest temperatures in tropics rather than equator. Believed in heliocentric concept of Copernicus, Kepler & Galileo.

3. J.R. Forster & J.G. Forster - Father & son in that order. Accompanied Captain Cook on his voyage. Visited Volga steppe on invitation of the Russian government. There method of working has been often named ‘comparative method’.

4. Immanuel Kant (1724-1804) - German. Professor of Geography at the university of Konigsberg. Gave philosophical dimension to geography. Gave logical classification (similar origin) & physical classification (same time). Physical classification gives the basis for geography & history. Identified physical geography as including not only natural features but also man. World as perceived by inner senses is soul & by outer senses is nature. Laid down the foundation of “Exceptionalism” in Geography i.e. geography & history are methodologically distinct from other sciences. Said that generalization in the form of laws is useless in geography & regarded it as as “Idiographic”. Geography was chorological & history – chronological.

5. Alexander Von Humboldt (1769-1859 AD) - “Father of Modern Geography”. Coined the term “Cosmography” & divided it into Uranography (astronomy), geography (physical feature) & Concept of whole (visualized earth as inseparable whole). Affect of altitude, Temperature variation at same latitude with distance from sun, Map showing isotherms (invention), concept of Continentality, Coined
the term “Permafrost” Extensive studies of Ecuadorian volcanoes, Concluded that graphite, gneiss are of volcanic origin, description of vertical zones of Andes, Humboldt or Peruvian current. Exact longitude calculation for Lima, established correlation between forest & rainfall. Lake Valenica in Venezuela was shrinking due to deforestation. Explored Orinoco & established its connection with Amazon. Explored virgin lands of Siberia. In his ‘Relation Historique’ he laid down the foundation of plant geography. Divided regions of Latin America into botanical provinces. His “Kosmos” talked about universe & geographical thought since Egyptians. Believed in empirical, comparative & inductive method.

6. Carl Ritter (1779-1859 AD) - Was a teleologist. Gave the concept of “Unity in Diversity”. Stressed on land & water hemispheres, distinction between the rates of cooling of land & water. Defined geography as empirical science rather than deductive. Was a professor at university of Frankfurt & Berlin & founded the “Berlin Geographical Society”. He rejected the idea of ‘Pure Geography’(Reine
Geography) & said that history & geography must always remain inseparable. Chiefly concerned with the studies of human geography. Identified each continent with a different race. He was an armchair geographer. Wrote “Erdkunde” meaning science of the earth. Asia & Africa covered but
not Europe.