Showing posts with label DEFENCE. Show all posts
Showing posts with label DEFENCE. Show all posts

Friday, January 10, 2014

Nirbheek, India’s first gun for women, launched

nirbheek

India’s first gun for women, Nirbheek was launched on 9 January 2014. It is a tribute to the gang rape victim of December 2012, Nirbhaya.
Gun has been manufactured by the Indian Ordnance Factory, Kanpur.
It is a 0.32 bore light weight revolver which has been developed to give more power to women to defend themselves. It only weighs 500 grams and is made of titanium alloy. Besides, being the lightest revolver, Nirbheek is also the smallest revolver made in India.
For it simple mechanism and light frame it has been described by arms experts as an Indian hybrid of a Webley & Scott and Smith & Wesson.

Sunday, January 5, 2014

India successfully test fired Nuclear capable Dhanush Ballistic Missile

Dhanush-Ballistic

India on 23 November 2013 successfully test-fired its nuclear-capable Dhanush ballistic missile from a naval ship off Odisha coast.
The surface-to-surface Dhanush, a naval variant of India’s indigenously developed Prithvi missile, was test fired from a location at Bay of Bengal by the Srategic Force Command of the defence force.
The single-stage, liquid propelled Dhanush has already been inducted into the armed services. It is one of the five missiles developed by the Defence Research and Development Organisation under the Integrated Guided Missile Development Programme.
Dhanush missile is capable of carrying conventional as well as nuclear payload of 500 to 1000 kg and hit both land and sea-based targets.

India successfully test-fired indigenously developed MBLR Pinaka at Chandipur

Pinaka

India on 19 December 2013 successfully test-fired the indigenously developed Pinaka from a base at Chandipur-on-sea near Balasore, off the Odisha coast. Pinaka is a multi-barrel rocket launcher (MBRL). Six rounds of Pinaka were successfully tested from the proof and experimental establishment at Chandipur. The tests were conducted by personnel from Armament Research and Development Establishment (ARDE), Pune unit.
Since 1995, the Pinaka has undergone several tests has been inducted in the armed forces and the present trials were conducted with some improvements in the system. To supplement the artillery guns, rockets with a range of 40 kilometer capable as a force multiplier has been developed. The quick reaction time and high rate of fire of the system gave an edge to the Army during a low-intensity conflict situation.
Earlier in July 2013, more advanced second generation Pinaka Mark II Multi-Barrel Rocket Launcher System had undergone successful firing trials at Chandhan area in Pokhran field firing ranges in western Rajasthan.
The Main Features of Pinaka
 Pinaka is an area weapon system with a range of 40 km.
• The quick reaction time and high rate of fire of Pinaka will give an edge to the Army during a minor conflict situation.
 Pinaka system can fire a salvo of 12 rockets in 44 seconds. The battery of six launchers can neutraliseat a time a target area of 3.9 sq km.
 Pinaka is capable to incorporate several types of warheads, which make the weapon deadly for the enemy as it can even destroy solid structures and bunkers.

Saturday, February 2, 2013

INDIA'S SPACE PROGRAMME


The Indian Space Programme began in 1962. In 1969, the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) was set up with headquarters in Bangalore. The Space Commission was established in 1972. In 1975, India launched its first satellite, Aryabhata, and thus entered the space age.

SPACE MISSIONS :

Aryabhatta : India launched its first experimental satellite on April 19, 1975 from a Soviet cosmodrome to perform scientific x-ray experiments in space and send back data to earth.

Bhaskara-I : India's second 436 kg satellite was launched on June 7, 1979 to collect information on India's land, water, forest and ocean resources.

SLV Mission (Satellite Launch Vehicle) : India's first satellite launch vehicle SLV-3 was successfully
launched on July 18, 1980 from Sriharikota.

Rohini satellite was put into orbit on April 17, 1983 using SLV-3 and this completed the planned developmental flights of the SLV-3.

1984 : Rakesh Sharma became the first Indian to travel in space.

ASLV : First develomental launch of ASLV but unsuccessful.

Apple (Ariane Passenger Payload Experiment) : India's first experimental, geostationary satellite weighing 673 kg was launched on June 19, 1981.

Bhaskara-II : India's second satellite for earth observation was launched on November 20, 1981.

IRS Mission (Indian Remote Sensing Satellite) : IRS-1A India's first IRS was launched on March 17, 1988 for monitoring and management of natural resources.

IRS-1B India's second remote sensing satellite was launched on August 29, 1991 to replace IRS-1A which was nearing the end of its life.

1992 : ASLV (Augmented Satellite Launch Vehicle) successfully launched from Sriharikota on May 20. It is designed to augment indigenous satellite launching capability and put 150 kg class satellite into near earth orbit. Insat-2A was hurled into space from Kourou on July 10.

1993 : Insat-2B second indigenously fabricated multipurpose satellite placed in sapce, by Ariane rocket
from Kourou on July 23.

IRSIC : The world's most advanced remote sensing satellite, IRS-1C, built by Indian Scientists, was put into orbit successfully by a Russian rocket from the Baikonur cosmodrome on December 28, 1995.

ASLV is the forerunner of the more powerful Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV) and the Geosynchronous Launch Vehicle (GSLV). The first development flight of the PSLV, called PSLV-D1, on September 20, 1993, failed. However, according to ISRO it was a partial success which established India's capabilities in liquid propulsion system.

SROSS-III (Stretched Rohini Satellite Series) : After failure of two ASLV launches, SROSS-III, a 105 kg satellite was successfully placed in a 450 km high orbit via the launching of ASLV-D3, on May 20, 1992 though the lifespan of the satellite was only 55 days. The fourth development flight was made on May 4, 1994 and SROSSC4 was successfully placed into the near earth orbits from Sriharikota.

PSLV-D3 was successfully launched in 1996 from Sriharikota, placing the 922-kg. Indian remote sensing satellite, IRS-P3, into orbit. With this, India has entered the US-dominated global market for satellite launch vehicles.


INSAT Mission (Indian National Satellite System) : For domestic telecommunication, earth observation and nationwide radio and TV broadcasting, India launched four satellites in the INSAT-1 series, viz.
INSAT-1A On April 10, 1982-it failed prematurely.
INSAT-1B On August 30, 1983-it was successful.
INSAT-1C On July 22, 1988-it became redundant in 1989.
INSAT-1D On July 17, 1990-it was successful and completed the mission.

INSAT-2 Project :
INSAT-2A India's first indigenously built second generation satellite, it was launched on July 10, 1992. It is equipped with 50 per cent more capacity than the INSATI series.

INSAT-2B India's second indigenously built satellite. It was launched by the European Space Agency from Kourou, French Guiena on July 23, 1993. INSAT-2B has taken the place of INSAT-1B whose functioning ended following the completion of its ten-year life. The fourth development flight of ASLV-4 was made on May 4, 1994 and the SROSS-C4 was successfully placed into the near earth orbit from Sriharikota.
Insat-2D launched Ariane Rocket from Kourou on June 4, 1997 only four months later failed - disrupted communication had been abandoned in October 97 after efforts to solvage the satellite.

IRS-1D satellite launched in 1997 incorporate advanced features such as teh LISS-III camera, a Panchromatic Camera (PAN) and a wide field (wifs) enabling better spectrol resolutions - enhancing the application pottential of the satellite.
PSLV-D4 placed IRS-1D in orbit on October 7, 1997. The first developmental launch of the GSLV was scheduled in 1997-98, using a Russian Cryogenic Engine.

Insat-2E : Satellite was placed in space on April 3, 1999. PSLVC2 was launched on May 26 with 3 satellites on board.
Insat-3B was launched on March 22, 2000.

ISRO Launched Cryogenic Engine : On February 16, 2000, the first cryogenic engine was ignited at the
Liquid propulsino Systems Centre at Mahendragiri is Tamil Nadu.

GSLV-D1 : This was successfully launched on April 18, 2001 from Sriharikota.

PSLV-C3 : This was launched from Sriharikota on October 22, 2001. Three satellites were put into the orbit of the earth namely (a) TES (India); (b) BIRD (Germany); (c) PROBA (Belgium).

INSAT-3C : ISRO built Satellite was launched by ARIANE-4 from Kourou, French Guyana on January
24, 2002.
KALPANA-1 : To honour the memory of Kalpana Chawla, Prime Minister Mr.Vajpayee renamed METSAT, India's first metorological research satellite launched by ISRO on September 22, 2002.

GSAT-2 : The Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO) successfully launched India's second Geo- Stationary Satellite (GSAT-2) on May 8, 2003, from Satish Dhawan Space Centre - SHAR (SDSC - SHAR) at Sriharikota, 100 kms from Chennai.

INDIA’S ATOMIC RESEARCH


First Nuclear Implosion was carried out on May 18,1974 at Pokharan in Rajasthan (Thar) desert. The main objective was the use of atomic energy for peaceful purposes, i.e.digging canals, reservoirs, oil exploration, as well as to study rock dynamics. This successful implosion made India the sixth nuclear nation in the world. In Pokhran (Rajasthan) three tests were conducted on May 11, 1998 and two on May 13, 1998. Code named "Operation Shakti". India declared itself a nuclear weapon state capable of deterring a nuclear attack on its territory.

ATOMIC POWER PLANTS


1. Tarapur Atomic Power Station Tarapur (Maharashtra)

2. Rajasthan Atomic Power Starion Rawabhata

3. Madras Atomic Power Station Kalpakkam (Tamil Nadu)

4. Narora Atomic Power Station Narora (Uttar Pradesh)

5. Kakrapara Atomic Power Station Kakrapara  (Gujarat)

6. Koodangulam Atomic Power Station (KNPP) (Tamil Nadu)

7. Kaiga Power Project (KPP) Kaiga (Karnataka)


Atomic Energy Commission: was established in 1948, with Dr H.J. Bhabha as its first Chairman, to look after India’s atomic energy programmes.

Department of Atomic Energy (DAE): was set up in August 1954 for implementation of atomic energy
programmes and headed by the Prime Minister of India.

It has several centres/laboratories:

1. Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research: is located at Kalpakkam (Chennai) , it was established in 1971.

2. Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC): was established in1957, it is located in Trombay (Maharashtra) and is India’s largest atomic research centre.

3. Centre for Advanced Technology (CAT):is located at Indore, it was established in 1984.

NUCLEAR POWER PROJECTS

The Nuclear Power Corporation of India Ltd (NPC), set up in 1987, is responsible for the design, construction and operation of nuclear power plants in the country. It is envisaged that by 2000 AD, India’s atomic power generation would be in the vicinity of 10,000 MW.


INDIA’S MISSILE PROGRAMME


Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) has started India’s Integrated Missile Development Programme (IGMDP) in 1982-1983 under the chairmanship of Dr A.P.J. Abdul Kalam.

Prithvi : is a Surface-to-surface battlefield missile and has a range of 150km-250km. It was first launched on February 25, 1988 from Rocket Launching Centre, Sriharikota. It was successfully test fired from the Interiem Test Range at Chandipur-on-sea, March 27, 2003.

Agni : is a Surface-to-surface ballistic missile. It has a range of 1200km-2000km. On May 22,1989 it was first launched from Chandipur (Orissa).


Agni-1 : was successfully test fired from the launch complex at the Wheeler's island located in the Bay of Bengal of the Orissa coast.

Trishul : is a low-level and quick reaction surface-tosurface missile and has a range of 500 m to 9 km (short range). It is developed for all the three defence services namely army, navy and air force. It was first launched in 1985.

Nag : is a Anti-tank guided missile. Its range is 4 km. Its first test flight was made in 1988.

Anti-Missile System : India has embarked upon the developmnt of an anti-missile system capable of detecting and destroying enemy’s long-range missiles similar to the US made ‘Patriot’ which was effectively used against Iraqi scud missiles in the 1991 gulf war.

Nag Fire and Target System : Indian defence Scientists, in a technological breakthrough, have successfully tested the "fire and forget guidance system" using imaging infra-red seeker for mounting on Nag, making it the first third generation anti-tank missile in the world.

Akash : Akash was successfully test fired from Chandipur-on-Sea, in Balasore district, Orissa on September 19, 2000. It is a medium range surface-to air missile. It has a range of 25 km. It was again successfully test fired on January 21, 2003.

BrahMos : The supersonic anti-ship cruise missile BrahMos, jointly developed by India and Russia, was
successfully test fired for the 2nd time in February 12, 2003. For the first time missile was the test fired from the ship (INS-Rajput) stationed in the Bay of Bengal.

The Arjun Tank : The state of the art flagship of Indian armour and can move in a battlefield at 72 kmph. It has laser range finder, computer-based firing system, 12.7 mm machine gun and thermal sighting equipment.

Pinaka : Pinaka is a multi-barrel rocket system characterised by the capability to deliver saturation fire over targets not engagable by guns. It has a range of 40 km and can deliver a variety of warheads.

LCA : LCA is an eight tonne state of the art multi-role combat aircraft. It would be capable of engaging air battle in a 600 km combat zone. It would carry laser-guided bombs, IR and radar guided missiles, anti-ship missiles, cluster bomb dispensers etc.

IMPORTANT SUBMARINES


(a) INS Vibhuti: Country’s first indigenously built missile boat.

(b) INS Chakra : India’s first nuclear powered submarine. It has now been decommissioned and
returned to Russia.

(c) INS Vipul : Second indigenously built missile boat.

(d) INS Savitri: India’s first warship.

(e) INS Shalki : India’s first indigenously built submarine.

(f) INS Delhi : India’s largest, most sophistiated, indigenously built warship.

(g) INS Nashak : Third indigenously built missile boat joined the Navy in 1994.

DEFENCE AND SECURITY


Supreme Commander - President of India

Administrative control - Ministry of Defence

ARMY : is headed by the Chief of Army Staff and its headquarters is at New Delhi.

India’s Battle Tanks: (1) Vijayanta battle tank; (2) Arjun : Indigenously built Main Battle Tank (MBT) inducted in 1993; (3) T-55 and T-72 purchased from Russia.

AIR FORCE : is headed by the Chief of Air Staff and its headquarters is at New Delhi.

Aircrafts : MIG-29 aircraft were acquired from Russia and have been named Baaz. MIG-23, MIG-25 and MIG-27 are the other types of MIG aircrafts. MIG-21 is being manufactured by Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL) to serve as jet training aircraft.

The Defence Research & Development Organisation (DRDO) has developed a Pilotless Target Aircraft which has been named Lakshya.
India also acquired the Mirage-2000 from France, which has been named Vajra.

NAVY : is headed by the Chief of Naval Staff and its headquarters is at New Delhi.

No. of Fleets: (a) Western Fleet (b) Eastern Fleet

Aircraft Carriers:
(a) INS Vikrant: India’s first aircraft carrier
(b) INS Viraat : India’s largest aircraft carrier