Showing posts with label AGRICULTURE CROPS. Show all posts
Showing posts with label AGRICULTURE CROPS. Show all posts

Monday, December 26, 2016

SHANMUGAM IAS STUDY CIRCLE ACHIEVERS

Thursday, May 9, 2013

GINGER


Ginger is one of the earliest known oriental spices and is being cultivated in India for both as fresh vegetable and as a dried spice, since time immemorial.

General Characteristics
 It shall be dried rhizomes of Zingiber officinale Rose, in pieces, irregular in shape, pale brown in colour.
 Its fibrous content shall be characteristic of the variety with peel not entirely removed.
 It shall be lime bleached.
 It shall have characteristic taste and flavour and shall not have a musty odour or a rancid or bitter taste.
 It shall be free from added colouring matter.
 It shall be free from mould growth and living insects and practically free from dead insects, insect fragments and rodent contamination.
 It shall comply with restrictions in regard to Aflatoxins, Metallic Contaminants, Insecticide or Pesticide residue, poisonous metals, naturally occurring Contaminants, Microbial load and the like as specified by the Codex Alimentarius Commission or as per buyers requirements for Export purposes and the Prevention of Food Adulteration Rules, 1955 for domestic trade.

 Ginger grown in Assam, Sikkim and Meghalaya find major markets in North Indian states like Delhi, U.P., Punjab, Haryana, Rajasthan and Bihar.
 Ginger grown in Orissa is distributed in nearby markets of Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar and Chhattisgarh.
 Ginger from Southern states like Kerala are transported to nearby states like Karnataka, Tamil Nadu etc.

 India is a leading ginger producer in the world.
 More than 50% of total ginger production takes place in North East, Uttarakhand and Sikkim states.
 Most of ginger in North Eastern states is produced under organic conditions.
 India has identified / developed a number of superior and high yielding cultivars.


Grape (Vitis vinifera)

Grape (Vitis vinifera) is basically a sub- tropical crop. Maharashtra is a leading state in production of grapes in the whole country. With regard to agricultural land under grape cultivation and grapes production, Nasik and Sangli districts are at forefront in the state. the leading grape producing countries in the world in terms of production are China (8,651.83 thousand tons), Italy (7,787.80 thousand tons), USA (6,777.73 thousand tons) and Spain (6,107.20 thousand tons). India’s high productivity in grape has made it to reach 18th position in the world as far as production (total world production 67,116.25 thousand tons) is concerned.

Yields of grapes in India are highest in the world.

Farmers of Maharashtra state in cooperation with MSAMB have branded their product as MAHA GRAPE.

GREEN CHILLY (Capsicum annuum)


Maximum chillies are produced in Andhra Pradesh followed by Karnataka, Orissa, West Bengal, Maharashtra etc. Guntur in Andhra Pradesh is known for chillies.


India grows a variety of green chillies having mild pungency to high pungency.

Green chillies in India are available throughout the year.

Superior varieties of green chillies have been bred and have been made available to growers.

There is strong research support for cultivation of green chillies, as Indian Institute of Vegetable Research, Varanasi and State Agricultural Universities apart from IIHR, Bangalore and IARI, New Delhi are actively working on various aspects of chillies.

APEDA has sanctioned Agri Export Zones in Punjab, U.P., Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh, Bihar and West Bengal for promoting exports of vegetables including green chilly.

Mango (Mangifera indica Linn) - NATIONAL FRUIT

Mango (Mangifera indica Linn) is the most important fruit of India and is known as “King of fruits”.
The main mango producing states in India are Uttar Pradesh (23.86%), Andhra Pradesh (22.14%), Karnataka (11.71%), Bihar (8.79%), Gujarat (6.00%) and Tamil Nadu (5.09%).

India occupies top position in total production among mango growing countries of the world. India cultivates a wide variety of mangoes; some of them are very colourful and attractive with par excellence edible quality.


Okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) or ladies finger

West Bengal is the leading okra producing state followed by Bihar.


Okra is commonly grown in almost all parts of the plains and is consumed by common people
in all the states as vegetable.

The okra produced in West Bengal, Bihar, Orissa and Northern states is consumed in this
region itself due to high demand.

India is largest producer of okra in the world.


Onion (Allium cepa L)

India is the 2nd largest producer of onion, in the world next only to China but the productivity of onion in India is very low i.e. 14.21 tons/ ha as compared to China and other countries like , Egypt, Netherlands, & Iran etc.
Maximum onion production takes place in Maharashtra state followed by Karnataka, Gujarat.
Production of onion is almost throughout the year barring one or two months.
Wide varieties of onions are cultivated in the country.
More than 45% of total onion production takes place in Maharashtra, Gujarat and Madhya Pradesh states which is very conducive for exports Three Agri Export Zones have been established in Maharashtra, Karnataka and Madhya Pradesh states.
Export facility centre along with modern packhouse has been set up to facilitate export of onions at Indpur near Pune.
An irradiation unit has been established at Lasalgaon (Nasik) to inhibit sprouting in onions.
Onion growers have been trained on scientific farming of onion in Maharashtra and in Karnataka (rose onion growers).
In Maharashtra state, MSAMB has disbursed subsidy to farmers for developing onion storage structures for prolonged shelf life
There is a good research support, as NRC for Onion and National Horticulture Research and Development Foundation are located in Maharashtra it self.

Pineapple (Ananas comosus)


The major pineapple growing countries in the world are Brazil, Thailand, Philippines, Costa
Rica, China and India.


Pineapple is cultivated in India in North East, West Bengal, and Bihar in eastern side
and in Karnataka, Goa, Maharashtra etc, to some extent, in western side.


Internationally acceptable cultivars like Kew or Giant Kew which is also called Cayenne
or Smooth Cayenne are grown extensively in India.


Agri Export Zone for promoting exports of pineapple has already been established in
North Bengal.


There are good prospects for cultivation of organic pineapples in Kodagu district of
Karnataka and Ratnagiri district in Maharashtra state.






Pomegranate (Punica granatum)

Pomegranate (Punica granatum) is grown in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The total area under cultivation of pomegranate in India is 107.00 thousand ha and production is around 743.00 thousands tons.


 India is the largest producer of pomegranates in the world.

 India produces finest varieties of pomegranate having soft seeds, very less acids and very attractive colour of the fruits and grains.

 With adoption of different “bahars”, India can supply pomegranates almost throughout the year.

 Maximum cultivation of pomegranate is in states of Maharashtra and North Western Karnataka which are very close to the western port of Mumbai for exporting to Gulf and European countries.

 Quality of pomegranate is much superior to Spain and Iran in edible quality and attractiveness.

 Agri Export Zone for enhancing exports of pomegranate has been established in Maharashtra state.

 There is strong research support for scientific cultivation of pomegranate like National Research Center for Pomegranate, Solapur, MPKV, Rahuri in Maharashtra and IIHR, Bangalore in Karnataka state.

 Pomegranate co-operative societies from Maharashtra state have formed an apex cooperative namely MAHA ANAR.

 Bhagwa variety has high acceptance in European market.

 Pomegranate export facility center is being set up/has been set up in Baramati area with mechanical handling system.

 Farmers have been trained for export quality production and have registered with GLOBALGAP certification.

 MSAMB has recently obtained brand name i.e. “MAHAPOM”.


 Pomegranates grown in different parts of country are transported to the big cities for marketing.

 The fruits produced in Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu find market in Mumbai, Nagpur and Kolkata.

 The important whole sale markets of pomegranate in India are Kolkata, Delhi, Mumbai, Chennai, Bangalore, Nagpur, Pune and Ahmedabad. Pomegranates for these big markets are usually collected at the central places in all pomegranate growing areas.

 From Mumbai and Kolkata ports the pomegranate is exported to the destination markets.

TOMATO


India stands at fourth position in production of tomatoes next to China, U.S.A. And Turkey. 

Maximum production of tomatoes takes place in Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, Karnataka, Maharashtra, West Bengal, Bihar, Gujarat etc. 

Tomatoes are available for export throughout the year. 

High yielding F1 hybrids are being cultivated by farmers on a quite good scale 

There is excellent research support from all the SAUs and National Research Institutes like IIHR, Bangalore and IIVR (Indian Institute of Vegetable Research), Varanasi.

Distribution of raised seedlings of F1 hybrids is quite prevalent and is getting popular among vegetable farmers. 

APEDA has established a number of Agri Export Zones for vegetables namely in Punjab, U.P., Gujarat, Bihar, Jharkhand and West Bengal for promoting exports of vegetables and infrastructure for the same is being/has been set up.

Most of the tomatoes are produced in Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, Karnataka and Maharashtra.

The major markets of tomatoes are Kurnool, Prakasam, Bangalore, Belgaum, Nasik, Pune, Sangli and Nagpur.

From above markets tomatoes reach markets of Mumbai, Bhopal, Lucknow, Delhi etc for further distribution.

Wednesday, April 17, 2013

Banana


Banana is an important fruit crop of many tropical and subtropical regions of India. It is cultivated in India in an area of 830.5 thousand ha and total production is around 29,779.91 thousand tons. Main banana growing states are Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka.

The global production of banana is around 102028.17 thousand tons of which India contributes 29.19%. Besides India, other major banana producing countries are China, Philippines, Ecuador, Brazil and Indonesia.

Largest area under banana cultivation is in Tamil Nadu state followed by Maharashtra, Gujarat, Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka states.

 India is the largest producer of banana in the world.

 More than 27% of total banana production takes place in Maharashtra and Gujarat states.

 Rainfall and humidity are quite less particularly in Maharashtra and also to some extent in Gujarat state, resulting in lesser incidence of insects, pests and diseases compared to Central and South America and South East Asian countries.

 A superior cultivar namely Grand Naine, well accepted in international market is being cultivated in sizeable area in Maharashtra and Gujarat states.

 Red banana cultivar which is preferred in some countries can create a market for itself with support of display, campaign etc.

 Banana is cultivated in sufficient acreage and in different agro-climatic conditions and thus is in a position to meet the large demands from importing countries on a continuous basis, provided planting and cultivation is well planned.

 Transfer of technology is easy as growers have organized themselves by forming cooperatives/ associations and have branded their product as “Mahabanana”.

 Agri Export Zone for promoting exports of banana has been established in Maharashtra in Jalgaon area.

 Post harvest handling facilities are available at a small scale at Navsari and Borsad in Gujarat state.

 Banana Export Facility Center with mechanical handling system has been set up at Saavada in Jalgaon and Basmantnagar in district Hingoli in aharashtra state

 Geographically, India is better placed compared to South East Asian, Central and South American countries for exports to Gulf countries.

 Special training programmes need to be conducted to give knowledge to farmers about production of export quality banana in Maharashtra.