Showing posts with label GEOGRAPHY OF INDIA. Show all posts
Showing posts with label GEOGRAPHY OF INDIA. Show all posts

Wednesday, December 21, 2016

Government Exam Coaching Centre in Coimbatore



Shanmugam IAS Study circle is an independent private educational institution. It was established in the Year of 2006 with the noble cause of  training the civil service aspirants in a focus manner and preparing them for facing the lands highest examination.
we are steadfastly committed to quality guidance and holistic training to the IAS IPS IRS TNPSC GROUP I II& IV, VAO, BANKING, SI, POLICE, TET, TRB Railway and all competitive aspirants. view more..




Monday, April 1, 2013

Miscellaneous Facts: WORLD


1. The eastern regions of humid subtropical areas receive rainfall throughout the year like equatorial regions. Isotherms are irregular but closely spaced in Northern Hemishpere.

2. Alpha centauri is also known as Proxima Centauri. Asthenosphere lies above mesosphere. Ox Bow lake is a characteristic of the river in its old age.

3. Steam fog occurs when cold air blows over warmer waters & Advection fog occurs when moist air blows over cold surface. The only gas, not uniformly distributed over the entire atmosphere is ozone.

4. One nautical mile is equal to 1.85 kilometers & one mile is equal to 1.6 kms. Albatross Cordillera is in

Pacific ocean.

5. Prince Edward Crozet ridge & Amsterdam – St. Paul Plateau are located in the Indian ocean. Lakshadweep-Chagos ridge, St. Paul ridge, Amsterdam-St. Paul plateau divide the Indian ocean into
almost two basins.

6. Emperor Seamount chain is in the Pacific Ocean. The maximum width of the continental shelf is off the arctic coast of Siberia. The deepest continental shelves surround Antarctica. In most of the areas the continental shelf is formed by constructive ocean.

7. The evolution of mid-Atlantic ridge can be dated back to Pliocene age.

8. Continental shelf has maximum depth of 200m. Continental slope has a depth of about 3600 m. Abyssal hills have height of 1000 m & guyots are 1100 m high.

9. Zaire canyon is riverine, Canyons of south California are dendritic, Canyons of Bering Sea are the largest & Oceanographer canyon is small gorge.

10. Atlantic Ocean has the maximum percentage of continental shelf area followed by Pacific & Indian.

11. Red clay deposit is widely found in Pacific Ocean. Pteropod is found mainly only in the Atlantic ocean. Radiolarian & Diatom ooze can be found at greater depth than Pteropod & globigerina ooze because siliceous ooze are less soluble while calcareous oozes are easily soluble.

12. A zone in which the density of water increase with increasing depth is called Pycnocline zone.

13. Silt is smaller in size than sand but larger than clay. Pebble is smaller than cobble.

14.Salinity of ocean is a function of latitude. Gulf of Bothnia records the lowest salinity of less than 2 %.

15. Lower the salinity higher is the freezing point.

16. Kiel Canal shortens the distance between London & Kaliningrad.

17. C horizon is not a part of mineral horizon. The dominant species of an ecosystem are more prone to climatic changes. Trasnfromation process of pedogenic regime includes humification & mineralization. Entisols are also highly productive in some regions. Chelating agents are associated with the process of podzolization.

18. Climate & biotic factors are active soil forming factors whereas time, topography & parent rock are passive. The transition zone between two ecosystems is called ecotone. Allelopathy is a phenomenon in which toxins produced by one species inhibit the growth of other.

19. USDA soils & their zonal equivalents are: Vertisols (grumusols), Mollisols (Chernozem), Spodosols
(Podzols) & Alfisols (Degraded chernozems). The loess serves as an ideal parent material for chernozem soils.

20. Soils & the vegetation supported are: brown earths (deciduous forests), podzol (heath forest), chernozem (steppe grasses), grumusol (savanna grasses). Tropical heath forest, also known as Kerangas forest, is a type of forest found on the island of Borneo, especially in Brunei.


21. The types of humus in terrestrial environment are: mor, moder & mull. Mor is a type of humus, which occur largely in coniferous forest soils and the moorlands soils. This humus arise under conditions of lowbiological activity in soil. Moder is a transitional form of humus between mull and moder, characteristic for sod-podzolic soils, loesses and mountain grassland soils. Mull is a type of humus characteristic for chestnut soils & arises under grassland conditions. Mull is well humified organic matter. The favourable pH for the growth of cereal crops is 6.5.

22. Climax (community) which is the hypothetical optimal community that would eventually develop under ideal conditions and without human interference. If climate dictates the nature of this community we describe this as a climactic climax whereas if the soil conditions limit the type of climax that develops we speak of an edaphic climax (E.g. Savannah). Where there has been some interference that degrades the climax we say that secondary succession has occurred and if we now view this secondary community as on its way back to the climax we can refer to this as a sub-climax.

23. Aestivation refers to the state of inactivity adopted by desert animals during the hottest & driest season. The oldest animal fossil has been found in Zambia.

24. Devonian period is the age of fishes. Ambhibians & reptiles evolved during carboniferous period.

25. Sun Spots are cooler areas of the sun. The dark lines in corona are called ‘Fraunhofer lines’.

26. For an earthquake at a particular spot the shadow zone of P-waves invariably exist between 103 & 143 degree form the earthquake focus.

27. The variation of wind with elevation through the friction layer is represented by an equi angular spiral known as the Ekman spiral. Beaufort scale ranges from 0 to 12.

28. Saturn is known as Jewel Planet & Venus as veiled planet.

29. Primary waves can change into secondary waves under certain conditions due to refraction. Surface waves or long period waves cover the longest distance of all seismic waves. Focus is also known as hypo centre.


Famous Ores of India


1. Kudremukh - Iron Ore - Karnataka

2. Aliabet - Offshore oil field - Gulf of Kambhat

3. Bailadila - Iron Ore - Chattisgarh

4. Gurumahisani - Iron Ore - Mayubhanj, Orissa

5. Balghat - Copper, Manganese - M.P (Malanjkhand)

6. Koraput - Bauxite - Orissa

7. Kolihan - Copper - Rajasthan

8. Kodarma - Mica J- harkhand

9. Lohardaga - Bauxite - Jharkhand

10. Gumla - Bauxite - Jharkhand

Various Geographical Features


1. New Moore - Deltaic Island & disputed site between Bangladesh & India

2. Kacchativu - Fishing area leased to Sri Lanka

3. Mandav Hills - Gujarat. North of Gir Hills.

4. Rarh Plains - West Bengal.

5. Mikir & Rengma Hills - Assam

6. Dudma Falls - Machkund river, Orissa.

7. Thekkadi Sanctuary - Kerala

8. Cambarjua Canal - Goa

9. Sirhind Canal - Sutlej

10. Upper Bari Doab Canal - Ravi

11. Hampi - Karnataka

12. Keibul Lamjao - Only floating national park in Manipur Loktak lake.

13. Pulicat Lake - Barred by long sandpit – Sri Harikota Island.

14. Gohana Lake - Situated near Devprayag in Garhwal

15. Wular & Dal Lake - Formed by tectonic forces of faulting.

Wetlands of India


Harike - Punjab

Ashtamudi - Kerala

Bhoj - Madhya Pradesh

Kabar - Bihar

Kanji - Punjab

Kolleru - Andhra Pradesh

Nalsarovar - Gujarat

Pichola - Rajasthan

Renuka - Himachal Pradesh

Sasthamkotta - Kerala

Sukhana - Chandigarh

Ujni - Maharashtra

Doabs of India


1. Sind Sagar Doab - Indus & Jhelum

2. Jech/Chej Doab - Chenab & Jhelum

3. Bari Doab Beas, - Ravi & Satluj

4. Rachna Doab - Ravi & Chenab

5. Jalandhar/Bist Doab - Sutlej & Beas

Famous Beaches of India


1. Gopalpur & Chandipur beach - Orissa

2. Bheemunipatnam beach - Andhra Pradesh

3. Anjuna, Calangute & Baga beach - Goa

4. Ahmedpur Mandvi Beach - Gujarat

5 Karwar, Maple Beach - Karnataka

Glaciers


1. Batura glacier - Karakoram range (Extreme J & K now in PoK)

2. Hispar glacier - Karakoram range (Extreme J & K now in PoK)

3. Skamri glacier - Karakoram range (Extreme J & K now in PoK)

4. Biafo glacier - Karakoram range (Extreme J & K now in PoK)

5. Baltora glacier - Karakoram range (Extreme J & K now in PoK)

6. Siachen glacier - Karakoram range (Extreme J & K now in PoK)

7. Sonapani glacier - Pirpanjal region

8. Gangotri glacier - Kumaon-Garhwal region (Uttaranchal)

9. Milam glacier - Uttaranchal

10. Pindari glacier - Uttaranchal

11. Rambang glacier - Kanchenjunga-Everst region

12. Khumbu glacier - Mt. Everest region

13. Zemu glacier - Kanchenjunga-Everest region (Sikkim)

Forestry Research Institutions


1. Institute of Rain & Moist Deciduous Forests - Jorhat

2. Institute of wood science & Technology - Bangalore

3. Tropical Forestry Research Institute - Jabalpur

4. Institute of Forest Genetics & Tree Breeding - Coimbatore

5. Temperate Forest Research Institute - Shimla

6. Centre for Forest Productivity - Ranchi

7. Centre for Social Forestry & Environment - Allahabad

8. CAZRI - Jodhpur

Natural Gas Based Projects


1. Dahej Power Project Gujarat
2. Pata Petrochemical Project U.P.
3. Usar LPG project Maharashtra
4. Lakwa LPG project Assam

Miscellaneous Facts: INDIA


1. Largest SC community is chamar. The rainiest period for Tamil Nadu is October-November & not
December-January. Shola is a type of high-altitude stunted evergreen forest found in southern India
mainly in Karnataka, Kerala & Tamil Nadu. India has monopoly in the production of Lac.


2. Rama's Bridge, Nala's Bridge or Adam's Bridge is a chain of limestone shoals, between the islands of Mannar, near northwestern Sri Lanka, and Rameswaram, off the southeastern coast of India. The Pamban Bridge also called Indira Gandhi Bridge lies on the Indian end of the Palk Strait that connects Rameswaram island to mainland India.

3. Banbasa wild life sanctuary is in U.P. The largest tiger reserve in India is Nagarjuna Sagar – Sri Sailam tiger reserve.

4. Rivers of East India from North to south are Damodar, Subarnarekha, Brahmani-Baitrani & Mahanadi.

5. The rivers of Peninsular India from North to south are Krishna, Penneru, Palar, Cauvery & Vaigai.

6. The major tribes who inhabit the mountains of Kerala are Kanis, Uralis, Kadar, Kanikkar, Paniyar etc.. They are considered to be the descendants of the Negrito race. Even the Angami Nagas & the Badgis of the Rajmahal Hills in Bihar belong to the Negrito race.

7. The largest permanent migration of the Indian outside the country in the last century was associated with the sugarcane plantations.

8. Vishakhapatnam is the deepest port. Kolkata is riverine port. Kandla is tidal port. Mumbai is biggest port. Nava-Sheva (JLNP) is the busiest port.

9. Kadam project is in Andhra Pradesh & Gurusoppa project in Karnataka.

10. Bheraghat falls (Narmada), Sivasamudram falls (Cauvery) & Hundru falls (Subarnarekha)

11. Tungabhadra water dispute (A.P. & Karnataka), Krishna Water dispute (Maharashtra, Karnataka &
Andhra Pradesh).

12. The major fishing harbours of India are Cochin, Madras & Vishakhapatnam

13. The following steel plants are in order of decreasing capacity: Bhilai, Durgapur & Burnpur.

14. Kerala coast is an example of emergent coast. Kolleru Lake in Andhra Pradesh; Sasthamkotta Lake in Kerala are important.

15. In 2001 census, the proportion of children population to total population was the least among jains & the sex ratio was the least among sikhs.

16. The correct sequence of ranges/hills in peninsular plateau region from north to south is Garhjat Hills, Balaghat range, Palkonda range, Cardamom hills.

17. Valmiki Tiger reserve & Kabar Lake bird sanctary are in Bihar. Ujni wetlands is in Maharashtra & Deeper Beel wetlands in Assam. Shahpur Kandi irrigation project is in Punjab & Teesta Barrage in West Bengal. Kanheri National Park (Maharashtra) & Chandaka National Park (Orissa)

18. India is divided into five seismic zones. Zone I is most secure & Zone V being most vulenerable.
Aluminium plants are located near source of power & not near raw material.


19. Uttar Pradesh has the largest area under ravines. Aliabet is the largest island in the estuary of the
Narmada.

20. Kanthi coastal plain is in West Bengal & Nadhra plain is in Eastern Ghat.

21. Saddle Peak (North Andaman), Mount Thuiller (Great Nicobar), Mount Diavolo (Little Nicobar) & Mount Ford (Rutland Island).

22. Amarkantak plateau has radial drainage pattern. Garland canal project connects the rivers of east & west India.

23. Assam shares its boundary with seven other Indian states, Mizoram with three states & Tripura with 2 states. Both M.P touches 5 states & Chattisgarh touches 6 states. UP touches 8 states.

24. Total number of India states that form international border with the neighbouring countries is 17. Five Indian states have common border with Bangladesh.

25. In India the international boundary shared with different countries is Bangladesh (4096 km), Pakistan (3310 km), Myanmar (1458 Km).

26. Tso-morari is a huge mountain lake in Southeast Ladakh. Kolleru Lake is a large freshwater lake in India's Andhra Pradesh state. Ashtamudi Lake (Ashtamudi Kayal) is in Kollam district of Kerala state in south India. Ashtamudi Lake is designated a wetland of international importance under the Ramsar Convention.

27. Highest point is Singapore is Timah Hill. Lake Wular is the largest freshwater lake of India. Loktak lake is formed due to faulting. Vembanad Lake due to offshore bar formation in backwaters of Kerala.

28. Brahmaputra River has maximum surface run off while Ganga has maximum catchment area.

29. The name of Pench National Park, M.P. was changed to "Indira Priyadarshini Pench National Park". Orissa coast is mainly depositional in character.

30. Zojila pass is from Srinagar to Ladakh. Western ghats were uplifted in the Cenozoic period.

31. Tropic of Cancer passes through the following 8 states - Gujarat, Rajasthan, M.P, Chhattisgarh,
Jharkhand, West Bengal, Tripura & Mizoram. It does not pass through Orissa.

32. The most prominent India-Bangladesh border issues are the Tin Bigha Corridor, Muhuri Char and New Moore ( or South Talpatty/ Purbasha island).

33. Scheduled Caste (SC) and Scheduled Tribes (ST) comprised 16.2 percent and 8.1 percent respectively of the total population, according to Census of India 2001.

34. Indian board of wildlife is headed by Prime Minister of India. Gulf of Kutchh is a coral reef area.

35. Ragi, Bajra & Jowar are the three most important millets produced in India. Groundnut, rapeseed &
mustard are the most important oil seeds produced in India. India imports 40 % of its oilseeds needed.


36. U.P, Punjab & Rajasthan are the top 3 milk producing states in India. In terms of sheep population
Rajasthan ranks number one.

37. India is divided into 35 meterological sub divisions. IMD defines normal monsoon year as the rainfall between june-september is within plus/minus 10 per cent of the normal figure of 88 cm for the whole country.

38. The Pangong Tso (largest in Himalayas) & Tso Moriri lakes are in J & K region. Gurudogmar in Northern Sikkim is the highest lake.

39. Port Blair is located on South Andaman. Biggest island on Andaman & Nicobar island is Middel
Andaman. Highest point in the whole island is Saddle Peak on North Andaman Island. Narcondam island lies to the north of Barren Island, both being to the east of Andamans. Mallamalai hills, Palakonda range (both in A.P), Javadi Hills & Shevaroy Hills, Panchamalai hills, Sirumalai hills, Varushnad Hills in the eastern ghats (all 5 in Tamil Nadu) are in that order from north to south. Nilgiris (Extreme west TN), Annamalai hills & Cardamom hills from north to south in western ghats.

40. Moran river drains into Govind Ballabh Pant Sagar in Uttar Pradesh. Chandor Hills lie to the west of
Ajanta range in Maharasthra. To the south of Ajanta range lies Balaghat. Rajmahal Hills lie in NE
Jharkhand, forming the NE edge of Chhotanagpur plateu. Ramgarh hills lie in North Chhattisgarh &
Bastar plateau in south Chhattisgarh. Dandakranya overlaps Bastar plateau. To the south of Satpura range lies Mahadeo hills & Gawilgarh hills. Rayalseema uplands lie to the south of Telangana plateau.

41. Pondicherry consists of four small unconnected districts: Pondicherry, Karaikal (Tamil Nadu) and Yanam (A.P) on the Bay of Bengal and Mahé (Kerala) on the Arabian Sea.

42. Zoji La (J&K) Bara Lacha, Shipki La (H.P) Thag La, Niti & Lipu lekh (Uttaranchal) in that order form NW to SE.

43. Mountains (11 %), Hilly region (18.6 %), Plateau (27 %) & Plain area (43 %) of total india’s area.
Sectoral Consumption of electricity is Industrial (35%), Agriculture (31%), Domestic (21%) & Commercial (6%)

44. The east coastal plain is known as Northern Circars between Mahanadi & Krishna & Carnatic between Krishna & the Cauvery rivers.

45. Rectangular drainage pattern (Kosi & its tributaries), Superimposed pattern (Damodar & Chambal),
Radial pattern (Amarkantak & Kathiawar region).

46. The maximum number of National Parks is in M.P & maximum sanctuaries in Andaman & Nicobar

47. Peaty & organic soils are found in Kottayam & Alappuzha districts of Kerala where they are called Kari. Tidal or Littoral forests occur around the deltas, estuaries.



Saturday, March 30, 2013

Physiography Facts


1. India is the seventh largest country in the world. The north south extent is 3214km & E-W 2933Km. The mainland coastline is 6100 km long & including islands it is 7516 km long. Its geographical area is around 33 lakh sq km (or 328.72 million hectares). The southernmost point (Indira Point) is 6 degree 30 minutes north latitude.

2. Narcondam & Barren Island are volcanic islands of India. Most of the sandalwood of India comes from Karnataka.

3. The northernmost Himalayan ranges are called central Himalayas or Himadri. Beyond this range lies the Tibetan or Tethys Himalayas beyond with lies the Indus Tsangpo suture zone. To the south of the central or the Inner Himalayas lies the lesser or lower Himalayas or Middle Himalayas & is separated from the Greater Himalayas by a structural zone called Main Central Thrust. In between the Lower Himalayas (Middle Himalayas) & the Shivaliks lies the Main Boundary Thrust.

4. The Indus Suture Zone, ISZ (or Indus-Yarlung-Tsangpo Suture Zone) defines the zone of collision
between the Indian Plate and the Ladakh Batholith to the north. Between the Pir Panjal & the Zaskar range lies the valley of kashmir. Karakoram range, Ladakh range, Zaskar range from north to south. Important peaks of the Zaskar range are Kamet (highest), Nanda Devi & Gurla Mandhata.

5. The peaks above 8000 m in the himalayas in descending order are Mt Everest, Kanchenjunga, Makalu, Dhaulagiri, Mansalu, Cho Oyu, Nanga Parbat, Annapurna. Raman Peak is situated in Arabian Sea

6. The transhimalayas include the Karakoram & the Laddakh range. Karakoram range has its highest in peak K2 (or Qagir named after Chinese occupation). The highest peak of Kailash range is Mt. Kailash & that of Ladakh range is Mt. Rakaposhi.

7. The purvanchal (NE Himalayas) are divided into Purvu-NEFA (composed of Mishmi Hills & Patkai
Bum), Naga hills (Saramati is highest peak), Manipur Hills, North Cachar hills, Mizo hills (earlier known
as Lushai hills) & the Tripura hills.

8. The Garo, Khasi, Jaintia & the outlying Mikir & Rengma hills are structurally parts of peninsular plateau separated from the Indian peninsula by the Malda gap.

9. Bhabhar (in Punjab or Duars in Assam) lies to the north of Terai & is a pebble studded region which
causes many steams to get lost underneath which re-emerge in the Terai belt. Khadar is known as bet in punjab & Bhangar comprises of Kankars. The northern part of the punjab plains adjoinin the shivaliks
have witnesses intense erosion throgh boulder clanned streams called “Chos”.

10. In the pujab plain the area between rivers is called Doab & the river bluffs are called Dhayas. The thar desert has numerous features like dhrian (shifting sand dunes), sar (saline playa lakes), rohi (fertile tracts formed by rivers west of Aravallis) & dhands (alkaline lakes).

11. The east coast (or Coromandel coast) also known as Utkal ghat in orisssa & Payant ghat in Andhra & Tamil Nadu has two lagoon lakes (Pulicat lake north of Chennai & Chilka lake). The Eastern Ghats are broader whant the western ghats. Western ghat is divided into kathiawar, konkan & Malabar coast. It consists of Kayals (lagoons & backwaters largest being Vembnad lake). In karnataka the ghats are known as Kanara plain.

12. Madhya Bharat pathar is made of ancient vindhyan sediments through which the Chambal river has
formed badland. To the further east lies Bundelkhand upland.

13. North of Mahanadi lies the Baghelkhand plateau which is drained by tributaries of Son river. The
Chotanagpur plateau composed of granites & gneisses forms Jharkhand & is drained by Damodar. It has three lava hills of the Dalma, Porahat & Rajmahal. South of Chattisgarh basin (also called Mahanadi
basin) lies a region of rugged topography called Dandakaranya plateau. Garhjat hills are also called Orissa highlands & have their highest peak in Mehendragiri.


Physiographic divisions of the Peninsular Upland

1. North Central Uplands Aravalli Range, Rajasthan Uplands, Madhya Bharat Pathar

2. South Cental Highlands Malwa plateau, Vindhyan Scarplands, Vindhyan range, Narmada valley

3. Eastern Plateau Chotanagpur Plateau, Baghelkand plateau, Mahanadi basin, Dandakaranya, Garhjat Hills

4. Western plateau Maharashtra plateau, Satpura range

5. South Deccan Karnataka plateau, Telangana plateau

6. Meghalaya Mikir Uplands Meghalaya plateau, Mikir Hills

7. Western Ghats

8. Eastern Ghats


12. Madhya Bharat pathar is made of ancient vindhyan sediments through which the Chambal river has
formed badland. To the further east lies Bundelkhand upland.

13. North of Mahanadi lies the Baghelkhand plateau which is drained by tributaries of Son river. The
Chotanagpur plateau composed of granites & gneisses forms Jharkhand & is drained by Damodar. It has three lava hills of the Dalma, Porahat & Rajmahal. South of Chattisgarh basin (also called Mahanadi
basin) lies a region of rugged topography called Dandakaranya plateau. Garhjat hills are also called Orissa highlands & have their highest peak in Mehendragiri.

14. The Satpura range has three parts: Rajpipla hills in the western part, Mahadeo hills (highest peak
Dhupgarh near Panchmarhi) in the central part & Maikala range (highest peak Amarkantak) in the eastern reaches. Dhupgarh is the highest peak in entire Satpuras.

15. The Telangana or Andhra plateau has two parts: the Telangana & Rayalseema upland.

16. The highest peak of Anaimudi is the central point from which the three ranges radiate: Cardamom hills to the south, the Anamalai to the north & the Palni to the northeast. Thalghat (Kasara to Igatpuri), Bhorghat (between kalian & lonavala) & Palghat are the gaps in Sahyadris. Western ghats are block mountains formed by the downwarping of a part of the land into the Arabian sea & are steeper towards west. Cochin is connected to interior through the Palghat gap.


17. The Eastern Ghats are also known as Mehendragiri in Orissa. The Nilgiris in Tamil Nadu are the meeting point of the Eastern Ghats, Western Ghats & southern hills. Its highest peak is Dodabeta & it also includes Ooty hill station. Southwards of Nilgiri & separated from them by the Palghat gap are the Annamalail Hills.

18. The islands & passages from north to south are Coco Channel, North, middle & south Andamans, Duncan passage, little Andamans, Ten degree Channel, Car Nicobar, & Great Nicobar. In Lakshwadeep the sequence from north to south is Amindivi Island, Nine degree channel & Minicoy. B. Drainage

19. Satluj, Ravi, Chenab, Jhelum, & Indus (Sri Ram called Jubiliant Indra) from south to north. Gomati, Ghaghara, Gandak, Kosi & Mahananda are from west to east. Chambal, Sind, Betwa, ken & Son are in that order from west to east.

20. Sanskrit names Indus (Sindu), Jhelum (Vitasta), Ravi (Parushini), Beas (Vipasa) & Satluj (Satadru).

21. In Bangladesh Tista joins Brahmaputra on the right bank from where it is known as Jamuna.

22. Subernarekha & Brahmani both arise in the Chhotanagpur plateau & lie to the north of Mahanadi. The Baitrani is another stream of this system & its source lies in the Keonjhar plateau.

23. Bharatuzha (or Ponnani) is the longest river of Kerala. Periyar is second largest & Pamba falls into the Vembanad Lake. The penner originates in Karnataka (Kolar) & flows through Andhra Pradesh. The
Vaigai rises in kerala & receives diverted waters of the Periyar & ultimately joins Palk bay.

24. The dendritic pattern is best developed in the Indo Gangetic plains. Narmada flows between vidhyas & Satupura while Tapti lies to the south of Satpura. “Dhuandhar” falls (or marble falls) near Jabalpur on Narmada is famous. Pinnate pattern is found in Narmada & Tapti valleys. Naini Tal, Bhim Tal & Khewan Tal are Lakes of Kumaon. Kolleru lake is located in east Godavari district (A.P.). Loktak lake is in Manipur. Chitrakote falls is located on river Indravati in Bastar.

25. Cauveri is the least seasonal of all the rivers of the peninsular plateau. Karewas are lacustrine deposits of Kashmir. The Cardamom hills are part of Annamalai hills.

26. Lonar lake (Crater lake) is situated in Maharashtra. It is the largest crater in basaltic rock. Adams Bridge, is a narrow ridge of sand, mostly dry, which connects Mannar Island with Pamban Island
C: Climate, Vegetation & Soil

27. Jet Steams are of two types: Westerly jet streams which blow from west to east at a height of 12 km & easterly jet steams which blow from east to west at 13 km above. The tropical easterly jet exists over India during summer & disintegrates during winter.

28. Kalbaisakhi in West Bengal, Bordoichilla in Assam & Mango Showers in Peninsula. Tropical Cyclones occur in India during monsoon period. The average annual rainfall in India is 125 cm & most of it is orographic in nature.

29. Tropic of Cancer passes through Mizoram, Tripura, W. Bengal, Jharkhand, Chhatisgarh, M.P. Rajasthan & Gujarat. Gulf of Mannar lies on the east coast of Tamil Nadu.

30. Other classifications of the climate of India were given by Subramanyam & Sivaramakrishnaiah
(discomfortable to most comfortable), Kendrew & Stamp (18 C isotherm basis), BLC Johnson.

31. Jowar & Ragi are very popular on red soils.

32. Tropical Deciduous is the most widely distributed vegetation in India. Lakshwadeep has zero percent forest area & Andamans & Nicobar Islands have 87 percent. Mizoram, Arunachal & Nagaland have more than 80 percent forest cover. J & k has around one percent. Maximum Teak & Sal come from the forests of M.P & Chhattisgarh.

33. The term social forestry was first used by National Commission on Agriculture in 1976 & involves
planting trees on farms among other things.

34. Kaziranga National Park, Keoladeo National Park, Nanda Devi Biosphere reserve, Sundarbans Biosphere Reserve are identified as having outstanding universal value.

35. The biosphere reserves of India in order of their establishment from oldest to recent are Nilgiri, Nanda Devi, Nokrek (Meghalaya), Great Nicobar Islands, Gulf of Mannar, Manas, Sunderbans, Simlipal (Orissa), Dibru-Saikhowa (Assam), Dehang-Debang (Arunachal), Pachmarhi, Khangchendzonga, Agasthyamalai

36. Magnetite occurs at Daltonganj in palamau district (Jharkhand).

37. Net sown area is around 46 % of total land in area. In India net sown area is 142 million hectares & total cropped area is 187 million hectares. Ludhiana has highest yields of wheat & west Godavari is most important for rice cultivation in Andhra Pr. Pearl fishing is done at Tuticorin.

38. The contributors to petroleum production are Mumbai (65 %), Gujarat (18 %), Assam (16 %) & Tamil Nadu (1.37 %). Same trend of states is there in case of gas production with a little different %ages.

39. Petroleum Refining is done at Guwahati, Barauni, Koyali, Haldia, Mathura, Digboi, Panipat, Chennai,
Narimanam, Bongaigaon, Mumbai (HPCL, BPCL), Vishakhapatnam, Kochi, Numaligarh (Assam) & Tatipaka (ONGC-Andhra Pr). Tertiary coal is better than Gondwana coal.

40. Jharia coalfield (Dhanbad district, Jharkhand) alone accounts for 35 % of Indian production.

41. Only a few non-metallic minerals are significant in the mining economy. Limestone accounts alone for two-thirds of the total value under the group.

42. Nuclear power plants in India are at Tarapur, Rawatbhata, Kalpakkam, Narora (UP), Kaiga (Karnataka) & Kakarapara (Gujarat). Requirements for these reactors are fulfilled by the Nuclear Fuel complex located at Hyderabad & Heavy water plant at Vadodara. Eight heavy water plants are operational in India at Vadodara, Thal, Nangal, Tuticorin, Kota, Talcher, Hazira, Manuguro. A number of research reactors have been built to carry R&D in this field which include Apsara, Cirus, Zerlina, Purnima (I, II, & III), Dhruva & Kamini.

43. India is fifth in wind energy after Germany, USA, Denmark & Spain. Asia’s largest wind farm is located at Lamba in Gujarat. Tamil Nadu has highest installation of wind turbines.

44. Geothermal energy – Tattapani field (Chhattisgarh), Puga Valley (J & K), Manikaran Area (H.P.)

45. The farourable sites for ocean energy are Gulf of Cambay, Gulf of Kachchh & estuary of Hugli. India’s first tidal power plant is at Kandla. The fist solar energy plant & solar plant both are at Bhuj.

46. Hazira-Bijaipur-Jagdishpur pipeline transports liquid gas from the South Bassein offshore field off
Mumbai to Jagdishpur and Aonla, deep in the mainland in Uttar Pradesh.

47. Cropped area in a year under consideration is known as net sown area. The gross cultivated area includes the net sown area used more than once a year. Cropping intensity is given by total cropped area divided by net sown area.

48. West Bengal produces three crops of rice every year viz Aus, Aaman & Boro. Arabica coffee is grown at an altitude of around 750-1500 metres & Robusta around 300-600 metres.

49. The largest producing state for silk is Karnataka (60%), Andhra Pradesh (17%), Assam & Bihar. The fertilizer consumption is highest for Punjab (185 kg/ha), followed by Tamil Nadu & Andra Pradesh. Orissa has the lowest consumption.

50. Irrigation in India – Wells & Tubewell (56%), Canal (32%), Tank (6%) , Others (6.5%). Uttar Pradesh leads in Canal irrigation as well as Tubewell irrigation. Andhra Pradesh leads in Tank Irrigation. Tamil Nadu has developed highest proportion of its irrigation potential (95%).

51. The fish production in India during 2004-05 was around 6.4 Million Tonnes. Inland fisheries account for around 50 % of the total fish cash. Kerala leads in marine fish catch.

52. India with 18.5 crore cattle and 10 crore buffaloes ranks first in cattle and buffalo population in the world. India accounts for 15 % of world’s cattle & 57% of world’s buffalo population.

53. Mulching (ploughing in of crops), retting (fresh water treatment of Jute) & ratooning (using the same root for crop growth as in sugarcane) are some of the practices of agriculture.

54. Eutrophication is a process where water bodies receive excess nutrients that stimulate excessive plant growth choking weaker species & altering species composition.

55. The scientific name of Teak (Tectona Grandis) & Sal (Shorea Robusta). Sal is used for railway sleepers & Deodar for pencils

56. Ramsar Convention on Wetlands, signed in Ramsar, Iran, in 1971, is an intergovernmental treaty which provides for the conservation and wise use of wetlands


57. During the second five year plan, Iron & Steel plants were set up at Bhilai (Chhattisgarh), Rourkela
(Orisaa), & Durgapur (W. Bengal) & two aluminium plants were established at Hirakud (INDAL) &
Renukoot (Hinalco). During the fourth plan a steel plant was set up at Bokaro (Jharkhand). The
Vishakhapatnam steel project is the first on-shore steel project built during 6th plan. The Bhilai & Bokaro steel plants were built with Russian collaboration & they are the two biggest in that order.

58. M/s Jessops, Kolkata & Bharat Earth Movers Limited, Bangalore also manufacture rail coaches &
electrical multiple units.

59. India imports 40 % of its copper requirement from abroad. Most of the gold in India occurs in the form of veins in Dharwar schists.

60. Currency paper come from Hoshangabad in M.P & defense vehicles from Jabalpur. Cochin shipyard is the largest in India & built with Japanese assistance.

61. The east-west corridor extends from Silcher in Assam to Porbander in Gujarat. Kerala has the highest density of roads & J&K has the least. Goa has the highest density of surfaced roads. Maharasthra is the state with highest road length followed by Tamil Nadu, M.P & U.P.

62. Konkan railway runs from Roha in Maharashtra to Mangalore in Karnataka (760 Km long). It has Asia’s longest rail tunnel. Rail route per unit area is highest in Punjab and least for J&K. Rail route per unit population is highest for Gujarat & lowest for Tripura.

63. Buckingham Canal in Andhra Pradesh & Cumberjua Canal in Goa were once very important. Grand
Anicut canal is in Thanjuvar, Tamil Nadu. India has over two million square km of EEZ. Overall share of Indian Vessels in overseas trade is 32 % only. Maharashtra (53) has the maximum no of minor ports (184 in all), followed by Gujarat (40).

64. The ports are Kandla, Mumbai, Nhava Sheva, Mormugao, Mangalore, Kochi, Tuticorin, Chennai, Ennore (newest), Vishakhapatnam, Paradip, Haldia, Kolkata. Jawaharlal Nehru port has been developed at Nhava Sheva off the Mumbai port. Haldia decongests Kolkata & Ennore (25 Km north of Chennai & newest port) helps Chennai (Artificial shallow port) tackling its cargo. Paradip (Orissa) has the deepest harbour.

65. The New Mangalore port is used to export iron ore from Kudremukh & iron ore from Bailadila
(Chhattisgarh) is exported through Vishakhapatnam port. Marmagao port is situated at the entrance of the estuary of river Zuari in Goa. Dandakarnya is known for iron-ore deposits.

66. Prasar Bharati was created by merging Door-Darshan & All India radio in 1997. Indian postal system is the largest in the world with more than 1.5 lakh post offices. Rajdani channel (yellow boxes) for letters emanating from Delhi for state capitals. Metro Channel (light blue box). QMS was introduced in 1975 & works on the basis of PIN numbers.


67. India’s imports stand at around 36000 crores & exports at 29300 crores. Trade deficit is around 6500 crores. Exports are around 10.7 % of GDP. It is just 0.6 % of world trade. Foreign Debt is around 18% of GDP. It is 8th largest debted country in the world.

68. India produces around 90 million tonnes of milk every year (Buffalo 50%, Cow 46%, Goats 4%). M.P has the largest number of cattle followed by U.P & Bihar & West Bengal.

69. India’s Diesel power stations are located at Naharkatiya (Assam), Barauni (Bihar), Dhuvaran (Gujarat) & Trombay. The first Fertilizer-manufacturing unit was set up in 1906 at Ranipet near Chennai.

70. General Fertility ratio is the number of live births in a year per thousand of women of normal reproductive age group. Replacement or reproduction ratio is the number of female babies born per thousand of female population in the reproductive age group. The infant mortality rate is expressed as the number of deaths of children below one year per thousand of live births. Maternal mortality rate refers to the number of female deaths due to maternity causes per ten thousand of live births.

71. Primary, Secondary & Tertiary sex ratio refers to the sex ratio at conception, Birth & Enumeration
respectively. There is no doubt that more males are born than the females in case of all mammals including humans all over the world.

72. Percentage of Urban population in India is 27.78% & rural 72.22 %. Surat has the distinction of
experiencing the highest growth rate among the 35 metropolitan cities during 1991-2001. Madurai grew
with the slowest pace. Haryana experienced an increase in the population growth rate during the period
1991-2001.

73. Tamil Nadu has the highest urbanization among the top ten populous states.

74. India’s age composition is 0-15 years (36.5%), 15-59 years (56.7%) & above 60 (6.8 %). The dependency ratio is higher in rural areas than urban.

75. The sex ratio of the country is 933. Rural areas have more favourable sex ratio (946) compared to 901 of urban areas. Sex ratio registered sharpest decline during 1961-71.

76. In India the workers are: main workers (30.5 %), Marginal workers (8.7%) & non-workers (60.8%). Proportion of main workers (>183 days employment a year) is lowest in Kerala (26%) & highest in Arunachal Pradesh (38%).

77. Scheduled caste – highest population in U.P followed by West Bengal. Punjab has the highest proportion of scheduled caste. There is no scheduled caste population in Nagaland & Andamans. Among UTs highest SC population is in Delhi. Madhya Pradesh has the highest tribal population followed by Maharashtra & Orissa. Goa (376 people only) has the least ST population. Punjab, Haryana have no ST population. Mizoram (95%) & Lakshadweep (93%) have the highest percentage of tribal population.


78. The scheduled languages arranged in descending order of the number of speakers is Hindi, Bengali,
Teulgu, Marathi, Tamil, Urdu, Gujarati, Kannada, Malayalam, Oriya, Assamese, Sindhi, Nepali, Konkani, Manipuri, Kashmiri & Sanskrit.

79. North Indian languages including Gujrati, Marathi, Oriya, Bengali, & Assamese belong to Aryan group. Dravidian group includes Tamil, Kannada, Telugu & Malayalam. Austric languages are spoken by tribal groups of Meghalaya, Jharkhand & Western Satpura. Sino Tibetan languages prevalent in North eastern states: Tibeto Himalayan (Bhutia, Kinnauri), Arunachal (Aka, Dafla, Miri & Abor) & Naga-Myanmari (Bodo, Naga & Kuku group).

80. According to 2001 census: Hindu (80.5%), Muslim (13.4%), Christian (2.3%) & Sikh (1.8%). Hindu population proportion is highest in Himachal, Muslim in J&K, Christians in Kerala, Buddhist & Jain in Maharashtra

81. Overall literacy of India is 65.38 %. Male literacy is 75.85 % & Female 54.16 %. Lowest literacy levels are 47.53 % in Bihar to 90.92 % in Kerala. The proportion of children of eligible age group enrolled in primary schools is lowest in Uttar Pradesh & highest in Sikkim. Literacy is 80 % in Urban areas & 60 % in rural areas.

82. Environmental Imact I = PAT (population * Affluence * Harmful technology used in production). Poverty is higher in rural areas.


83. For whole India, the average distance among villages is 2.52 km. Average density of villages is highest in West Bengal, Bihar & U.P in that order. The maximum proportion of no of villages fall in the 500-999 category (25%), followed by 200-499 (24.3%) & less than 200 (18%). However the maximum population percentage is in 2000-5000 (30%) & 1000-2000 (26%).

84. The 35 million cities of India support more around 38 % of the total urban population. Chhattisgarh & Orissa do not have million cities.

85. The proportion of slums population to total population is highest in Meghalaya (41%) & lowest in Kerala (1.8%). Among the million plus cities highest proportion of slum population is in Mumbai & least in Patna. Maharashtra has highest slum population.

86. India grew at a rate of 1.93 % during the period 1991-2001. The population of the country rose by 21.34 % during 1991 - 2001.


87. Human activities are allowed in Sanctuary but not in National parks. Moreover sanctuaries are species specific while National parks are habitat oriented.

88. Badrinath is situated on the banks of river Alaknanda.

89. Rabaris are pastoralists in Gujarat. The highest Christian population is in Nagaland. Largest number of villages is in U.P.








Industries of India


1. Iron & Steel -IISCO has 3 plants at Kulti, Hirapur & Burnpur. Visvesvaraya Iron & Steel Co is located on the bank of Bhadravati river in Karnataka. Hindustan Steel Limited (HSL) at Bhilai, Durgapur & Bokaro.

2. Cotton Textile- 4% of GDP. 3.5 Crore population employed.

3. Sugar Industry

4. Aluminum Industry- HINDALCO (Renukoot), INDAL (Alupuram, Hirakud, Belgaum), Madras
Aluminium Company (MALCO, Mettur), BALCO (Korba), NALCO
(Koraput)

5. Copper Smelting -HCL is the main player & operates Khetri copper complex, Indian copper complex (Ghatsila, Jharkhand), Malanjkhand copper project (Balghat, M.P.), Taloja copper project (Raigad, Maharashtra).

6. Jute Textile -Centers are Titagarh, budge-budge, Haora, Rishra, Serampore, Bhadreshware, Shyamnagar.

7. Silk Textile -Its varieties are Mulberry (88%), Eri (9%), Tassar (2%), Muga (1%)

8. Woolen Textile -Punjab, Maharashtra & U.P account for 75% production. Dhariwal is most important centre. Others are Amritsar, Ludhiana, Kharar.

9. Heavy Industry Heavy Engineering Corp Ltd (Ranchi), Tungabhadra Steel Products Ltd
(Karnataka), Bharat heavy plates & Vessels (Vishakhapatnam)
Mining & allied machinery corporation (Durgapur).

10. Machine Tools- HMT (Bangalore, Pinjore in Haryana, Kalamassery in Kerala, Hyderabad, Ajmer & Sri Nagar), Heavy Machine Tools (Ranchi), Machine Tools Corp of India (Ajmer), National Instruments Factory at Kolkata.

11. Automobiles -TELCO in Mumbai, Ashok Leyland in Chennai, Bajaj Tempo (Pune). Defense vehicles are produced at Jabalpur.

12. Pesticides Hindustan Insecticides Ltd -(Delhi, Kerala & Rasayani, Maharashtra) Hindustan Organic Chemicals Ltd (Rasayani, Raigad & Kochi)

13. Cement Industry -Top manufacturing states are M.P, Chhattisgarh, Andhra Pr & Raj. Jamul is largest plant of M.P. & Sawai Madhopur leads in Rajasthan

14. Leather Industry India is 3rd largest player after Italy & U.S.

15. Glass Industry- Bahjoi & Naini (Both in U.P.) are famous for glass sheets & Firozabad bangles . Industries of India

16. Paper Industry -Rajmundhry (Andhra Pr), Ballarpur (Maharshtra), Titagarh (Bengal) Bhadravati, Dandeli (Karnataka), Hoshangabad (M.P)

17. Liquor Industry U.P. has more than 50% installed capacity. Maharashtra, A.P are others.

18. Aircraft industry -Important centres are HAL-Bangalore, Lucknow, Hyderabad, Others are Koraput (Orissa) & Nasik.

19. Railway Equipments - Chittaranjan Locomotive works (Electric engines) – West Bengal
Diesel Locomotive works – Varanasi
Integral Coach Factory – Perambur, Tamil Nadu
Rail Coach Factory – Kapurthala, Punjab.
Diesel Componets Works - Patiala
Railway wheels & Axels - Yalahanka (Banalore) & Durgapur.

20. Ship Building Hindustan Shipyard (Vishakhapatnam), Garden-Reach Shipbuilders (Kolkata), Mazagaon Dock (Mumbai), Goa Shipyard (Vasco).

21. Pharmaceuticals IDPL – Rhishikesh, Hyderabad, Gurgaon, Chennai, Muzzafarpur Hindustan Antibiotics Ltd – Pimpri, Pune – first public sector undertaking in this industry

Thursday, March 28, 2013

Breeds of Cattle - High Yielding Varieties of Seed


1. Cow  - Gir, Sahiwal, Red Sindhi, Deoni (Andhra Pr.), Nagori, Rathi, Siri, Malvi, Tharparkar.
               Exotic breeds – Holstein, Friesian, Jersey, Brown Swiss.

2. Buffalo- Murrah, Bhadawari, Nagpuri, Mehsana, Jaffrabadi, Surti, Nali-Ravi.

3. Sheep -Jaisalmeri, Pugal, Bikaneri, Marwari, Kathiawari.

4. Goats -Jamnapuri, Barbari



1. Wheat -Kalyan Sona, Sonalika, Arjun, Lerma, Sharbati Sonora, WL series.

2. Rice -Padma, Jaya, IR-8, Hamsa, Krishna, Cauvery, Annapurna

3. Maize -Ganga-101, Deccan Hybrid

4. Jowar- CSV-1 to CSV-7

5. Ragi -Sharda

6. Cotton -V-797, Hybrid 4,5, Digvijay, Varalaxmi, Sanjay, Deviraj, Virnar.

Types of Crops


Kharif Crops - Rice, Maize, Jowar, Ragi, Bajra, Tur, Moong, Urad, Cotton, Jute, Seasum, Groundnut, Soyabeen,

Rabi Crops - Wheat, Barley, Jowar, Rapeseed, Mustard, Linseed, Lentil, Gram, Peas

Zaid Crops - Sown during march to June. E.g. Water Melon, Melon, Cucumber, Vegetables, Moong, Urad.

Jowar is both a Kharif & Rabi Crop.



1. Black Pepper- Kerala (97 %)

2. Chillies -Andhra Pradesh (37%)

3. Turmeric -Andhra Pradesh (56%)

4. Ginger -Kerala (22), Meghalaya (20%)

5. Cardamom -Karnataka (57%)

6. Arecanut -Karnataka (41%), Kerala (30%)

Spices - Horticultural Crops


1. Mango -UP (32), Bihar (13) Andhra Pradesh. Accounts for 40 percent of all fruits

2. Banana- Maharashtra (28%), Gujarat (10%), Andhra Pradesh. Jalgaon district alone supplies more than 80 % of Maharashtra’s Banana

3. Cashew -Kerala (31%), Maharashtra (18%), Andhra Pradesh (14%). Cashew is a genus of Brazil. Largest foreign exchange earner

4. Orange -Maharashtra, M.P, Karnataka. Genus from China

5. Grapes- Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra. Native plant of Armenia. Grapes are imported in India.

6. Guava- U.P., Bihar. Native plant of Tropical America

7. Apple -J & K, Himachal Pr, Uttaranchal

8. Potato -U.P (35%), West Bengal (33%)

9. Onion- Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh

Oilseeds


1. Ground Nut -Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu

2. Rapeseed & Mustard -Rajasthan (45%), U.P, M.P.

3. Seasum -Gujarat (28 %), W. Bengal

4. Linseed -U.P, Maharashtra

5. Castorseed -Gujarat (82%)

6. Soyabeen- Madhya Pradesh (75%), Maharashtra, Rajasthan

7. Sunflower -Karnataka (47%), Maharashtra (23%), Andhra Pradesh (17%)

8. Coconut- Kerala (45%), Tamil Nadu (28 %)

Thermal Power Projects in India


1. Kothagundam Project -Singareni Coalfields Andhra Pradesh

2. Dhuraran Project- Kheda district Gujarat

3. Satpura Power Station -M.P.

4. Korba Project -Chhattisgarh

5. Talcher Power Station -Talcher Orissa

6. Obra Power Station -Obra U.P.

7. Bhusawal Power Station -Maharashtra

8. Hardauganj Power Station- U.P.

9. Bandel Power Station -West Bengal

10. Chandrapura Power Station -Bihar

11. Kolaghat Power Station West- Bengal

12. Bakreshwar (Birbhum) Station -West Bengal

Multipurpose Projects & Hydro-Electric Projects in India


Damodar Valley Project- Damodar -West Bengal & Jharkhand. It includes Maithon & Tilaiya Dam on Barakar river in Bihar, Konar Dam (Konar river) & Panchet Dam (Damodar).

Rihand Dam -Rihand- Uttar Pradesh

Nagarjunasagar Project -Krishna -Andhra Pradesh. Consists of two canals – Lal Bahadur Canal (Left) & Jawahar canal (Right).

Tungabhadra Project -Tungabhadra -JV of Andhra Pr & Karnataka.

Gandak Project- Gandak -JV between UP, Bihar & Nepal

Kosi Project- Kosi -JV of Bihar & Nepal

Beas Project- Beas -Includes Pong Dam

Mayurkashi Project -Mayurkashi -Mayurkashi is a tributary of Hugli.

Indira Gandhi Canal- It consists of Rajastan Feeder Canal (taking off from Harike Barrage, 204 km long, fully lined masonry canal) & Rajasthan main canal (445 Km)

Narmada Valley Project- Involves Sardar Sarovar dam in Gujarat & Narmada sagar (or Indira Sagar) dam in M.P.

Pochampad Project -Godavari- Andhra Pradesh.

Tehri Dam -Bhagirathi -Uttaranchal. Implemented with Soviet Aid. Highest rock fall dam in the country.

Parambikulam Project -JV between Tamil Nadu & Kerala.

Mata Tella Dam -Betwa -Near Jhansi in U.P.

Kangsbati Project -West Bengal

Rajasthan Canal Project -Sutlej, Beas -JV of Punjab & Rajastan. Ravi water is also used.

Kadana Project- Mahi- Gujarat

Tata Hydroelectric Scheme- Indravati -Maharashtra. Called Bhivpuri dam.

Koyna Hydroelectic Dam- Koyna -Maharashtra

Sivasamudram -Cauvery Falls- Karnataka

Pykara Hydro Elec Project- Pykara -Tamil Nadu (along Nilgiris)

Mettur Project- Cauvery -Tamil Nadu

Papansam Scheme -Tambraparni- Tamil Nadu

Sabargiri Hydel Project -Pampa- Kerala

Idukki Project -Periyar -Kerala

Sholayar Project -Sholayar- Kerala. JV between Kerala & Tamil Nadu

Machkund Power Project -Machkund -Orissa. JV between A.P & Orissa

Srisailam Power Project- Krishna -Andhra Pradesh


Balimela Hydro Project- Sileru river -JV between A.P & Orissa

Umiam Project- Umiam- Meghalaya

Salal Hydro Project -Chenab -J & K

Thein Dam Project- Ravi -Punjab

Banasagar Project- Son- JV between MP, UP & Bihar

Jayakwadi Project- Godavari- Maharashtra

Kakrapara Project- Tapi- Gujarat

Mahi Project- Mahi -Gujarat

Malprabha Project- Malprabha- Karnataka

Pallivasal project- Mudirapujha- Kerala

Poochampad- Godavari- Andhra Pradesh

Rajghat Dam Project -Betwa

Sarda Sahayak- Ghagara- Uttar Pradesh

Hansdev Bango Project- Hansdev -M.P.

Tawa Project -Tawa- M.P. Tawa is tributary of Narmada

Ukai Project -Tapi -Gujarat

Purna Project- Purna -Maharashtra

Rana Pratap Sagar- Chambal- Rajasthan (Rawatbhata)

Jawahar Sagar Dam- Chambal -Rajasthan (Kota)

Gandhi Sagar Dam- Chambal -Churasigarh Fort at MP-Rajasthan border

Chibro -Tons -Uttar Pradesh

Dool Hasti- Chenab- J & K.

Nathpa Jhakri- Satluj- Himachal Pr. Biggest hydel power project in India

Panchet Dam -Damodar -West Bengal

Wednesday, March 27, 2013

Energy Resources of India


Coal

Jharkhand -Jharia, Bokaro, Giridh, karanpura, Ramgarh, Daltonganj, Aurangabad, Hutar, Deogarh, Rajmahal

Orissa -Talcher, Rampur

M.P (Former)- Central Indian Coalfields -Singrauli, Sohagpur, Johilla, Umaria Satupura Coalfields - Pench, Kanhan, Pathkhera North Chhattisgarh - Chirmiri-Kaurasia, Bisrampur, Jhillmili, Sonhat, Lakhanpur, Sendurgarh, lakhanpur-Ramkola South Chhattisgarh-Hasdo-Arand, Korba, Mand-Raigarh

West Bengal- Raniganj, Darjeeling

Andhra Pr.- Singareni, Kothgundam, Tandur

Maharashtra -Chanda-Wardha, Kamptee, Bander


Tertiary coal


Meghalaya -Daranggiri, Cherpunji, Laitryngew, Mawlong, Langrin, Pendengru, Longoi, Waimong

Assam -Makum, Jaipur, Nazira

Arunachal Pr -Namchuk-Namphuk

J & K -Kalakot, Mohogala, Metka


Rajasthan- Palana (lignite) & Khari

Petroleum

North-East -Digboi, Naharkatiya, Moran, Rudrasagar, Galeki, Hugrijan, Nigru, Borholla

Gujarat -Ankeleshwar, Kalol, Nawagam, Kosamba, Kathana, Barkol,Mehsana, Sanand, Lunej, Aliabet island

Mumbai High- Bombay high, Bassein

East Coast- Narimanam, Kovillapal, Amlapur, Rawa

Other -Jaiselmer, Jwalamukhi Area (Punjab)


Natural Gas


Mumbai- Bombay high, Bassein

Gujarat -Jagatia, Gogha

Assam- Nahorkatiya & Moran

Tamil Nadu- Neypaltur, Mangamadam, Avadi, Virugambakam

Tripura -Baranura, Atharnure

Rajasthan- Barmer, Charaswala

Arunachal Pr -Non Chick, Mia-Pung, Laptan pung

Himachal Pr -Jwalamukhi, Kangra

West Bengal -Medinipur

Uranium 

Jaduguda (Jharkhand), Bhatin, Narwapahar under Uranium Corportation in India are the only mines worked at present

Thorium 

Beach Sands (Kerala), Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pr, Orissa