Showing posts with label HISTORY. Show all posts
Showing posts with label HISTORY. Show all posts

Monday, February 4, 2013

Major Developments in Harappan Archaeology

Nineteenth century

1875 Report of Alexander Cunningham on Harappan seal

Twentieth century

1921 M.S. Vats begins excavations at Harappa

1925 Excavations begin at Mohenjodaro

1946 R.E.M. Wheeler excavates at Harappa

1955 S.R. Rao begins excavations at Lothal

1960 B.B. Lal and B.K. Thapar begin excavations at Kalibangan

1974 M.R. Mughal begins explorations in Bahawalpur

1980 A team of German and Italian archaeologists begins surface explorations at Mohenjodaro

1986 American team begins excavations at Harappa

1990 R.S. Bisht begins excavations at Dholavira

Major Periods in Early Indian Archaeology

2 million BP (BEFORE PRESENT) Lower Palaeolithic

80,000 Middle Palaeolithic

35,000 Upper Palaeolithic

12,000 Mesolithic

10,000 Neolithic (early agriculturists and pastoralists)

6,000 Chalcolithic (first use of copper)

2600 BCE Harappan civilisation

1000 BCE Early iron, megalithic burials

600 BCE-400 CE Early Historic


􀁘 Beginning of the Gupta dynasty (about 1700 years ago)

􀁘 The rule of Harshavardhana (about 1400 years ago)

􀁘 beginning of stupa building (2300 years ago)

􀁘 Amaravati (2000 years ago)

􀁘 Kalidasa (1600 years ago)

􀁘 Iron pillar, Temple at Bhitargaon, Paintings at Ajanta, Aryabhata (1500 years ago)

􀁘 Durga temple (1400 years ago)

􀁘 Discovery of silk making (about 7000 years ago)

􀁘The Cholas, Cheras and Pandyas (about 2300 years ago)

􀁘 Growing demand for silk in the Roman Empire (about 2000 years ago)

􀁘 Kanishka, the Kushana ruler (about 1900 years ago)

􀁘 Fa Xian comes to India (about 1600 years ago)

􀁘 Xuan Zang comes to India, Appar composes devotional poems in praise of Shiva (about 1400 years ago)

􀁘 Beginning of the use of iron in the subcontinent (about 3000 years ago)

􀁘 Increase in the use of iron, cities, punch marked coins (about 2500 years ago)

􀁘 Beginning of the composition of Sangam literature (about 2300 years ago)

􀁘 Settlement in Arikamedu (between 2200 and 1900 years ago)

􀁘 Beginning of the Mauryan empire (more than 2300 years ago)

􀁘 Upanishadic thinkers, the Jaina teacher Mahavira and the Buddha (about 2500 years ago)

􀁘 Writing down of the Jaina texts (about 1500 years ago)

􀁘 New kinds of rajas (about 3000 years ago)

􀁘 Mahajanapadas (about 2500 years ago)

􀁘 Alexander’s invasion, composition of the Digha Nikaya (about 2300 years ago)

􀁘 End of the ganas or sanghas (about 1500 years ago)

􀁘 Beginning of the composition of the Vedas (about 3500 years ago)

􀁘 Beginning of the building of megaliths (about 3000 years ago)

􀁘 Settlement at Inamgaon (between 3600 and 2700 years ago)

􀁘 Charaka (about 2000 years ago)

􀁘 Cotton cultivation at Mehrgarh (about 7000 years ago)

􀁘 Beginning of cities (about 4700 years ago)

􀁘 Beginning of the end of these cities (about 3900 years ago)

􀁘 The emergence of other cities (about 2500 years ago)

􀁘 Beginnings of domestication (about 12,000 years ago)

􀁘 Beginning of settlement at Mehrgarh (about 8000 years ago)

􀁘 the Mesolithic period (12,000-10,000 years ago)

􀁘 the beginning of the Neolithic (10,000 years ago)

􀁘 the beginning of agriculture (8000 years ago)

􀁘 the first cities on the Indus (4700 years ago)

􀁘 cities in the Ganga valley, a big kingdom in Magadha (2500 years ago)

􀁘 the present (about 2000 AD/CE)

Sunday, February 3, 2013

All about Gandhji

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, called Mahatma, is the Father of the Nation.

He was born on October 2, 1869 at Porbandar in Gujarat as, the son of Karamchand and Putilibai.

Gandhiji proceeded to England in 1888 and returned to India as a Barrister-at-law in 1891.

Gandhiji went to Natal in South Africa in 1893 to practise law. There he was subjected to colour discrimination and he organized Natal Indian Congress. He started the journal ‘Indian Opinion’ and built Phoenix Colony and Tolstoy Farm here. He experimented the weapon Satyagraha for the first time in South Africa in 1906. So South Aftica is often called his political laboratory. The period between 1893 and 1914, he engaged in a struggle against the racist authorities of South Africa. It was then that he
evolved the teaching of Satyagraha based on truth and non-violence.

He returned to India in 1915, leaving South Africa for ever.

Gandhiji built his ashram on the banks of Sabarmati in Gujarat on January 29, 1916.

Gandhiji’s first Satyagraha in India was for the rights of indigo workers in Champaran (Bihar) in 1917.

Gandhiji’s first fast was in 1918 in connection with the strike of mill workers in Ahmedabad.

Gandhiji had organised in February 1919 a Satyagraha Committee, the members of which were to take a pledge to refuse to obey the laws of Rowlatt Act.

The Bills were enacted on March 18, 1919. The Rowlatt Satyagraha was a failure but this projected Gandhiji as "an all India leader of immense potential".

The Jallianwala Bagh Tragedy on April 13, 1919 had a great impact on Mahatma Gandhi. He returned the "Kaiser-i-Hind" medal given to him. On November 23, 1919, Gandhiji was elected president of the All India Khilafat Conference, which met at Delhi.

First Non-Co-operation Movement was launched on 1st August 1920. The Non-Co-operation Movement spread to rural areas between 1921 and 1922.

Non-Co-operation Movement came to an end on February 12, 1922 in response to the violence at
Chauri Chaura. Gandhiji came back to active politics and attended the Calcutta session of the Congress in December 1928.

The Civil Disobedience Movement was started by Gandhiji on 12th March 1930.

Gandhiji along with 78 companions which included Sarojini Naidu, marched nearly 375 km from Sabarmati Ashram to Dandi and broke the law by making salt from sea water.

The Congress boycotted the First Round Table Conference which was held in London on November 12, 1930. Gandhiji attended the Second Round Table Conference held in London on September 7, 1931 as the sole representative of Congress.
"A half naked fakir from India" - Winston Churchill’s comment about Gandhiji when he went to attend the Second Round Table Conference in London in 1931.

Gandhiji was the editor of the English weekly "Young India" and the Gujarati weekly "Navajivan". Later he started the weekly "Harijan" on January 8th, 1933 and this was observed as "Temple Entry Day".

Gandhiji retired from Congress in October 1934. One of the great dreams of Gandhiji was the establishment of "Grama Swaraj". He said, "India lives in villages". He started Sewagram Ashram on 30 April 1936.

The Congress started "Individual Civil Disobedience" in October 1940 and the Mahatma Gandhi.
Meanwhile Gandhiji was again arrested and on May 6, 1944, Mahatma Gandhi made earnest efforts for communal harmony with Jinnah. But the talks failed.

In 1945, a Conference was held at Simla, under Lord Wavell, the then Viceroy. Jinnah argued that only the League should nominate Muslims to the Council. The Congress refused to accept and Simla Conference broke down.

In the elections to the Central and provincial Legislatures held in 1945-46, Congress won the General seats. New Constituent Assembly started to function from December 9, 1946. Dr. Babu Rajendra Prasad was elected the chairman of the Assembly on January 1947.

The British parliament passed the Indian Independence Act based on the Mountbatten plan in July 18, 1947.

On January 30, 1948 while he was holding a prayer meeting at Birla House, Delhi, he was shot dead by a Hindu fanatic, Nathuram Vinatak Godse. His last words were ‘Hai Ram, Ram, Ram’.

Gandhiji's slogans were "Quit India", "Do or Die", "Bharat Charo".

Gandhiji spent altogether 2338 days in prison in his lifetime, Most of the time spent in Yervada Jail In Poona. Gandhi also worked for eliminating untouchability and bring harmony between Hindus and Muslims.

He set up a Harijan Sevak Sangh to uplift the Harijan. Gandhiji said, "Non violence is not one form, it is the only form of direct action".

Rajghat is the name of the Gandhi Samadhi at Delhi.

Kenneth Kaunda is known African Gandhi.

Gandhiji Birthday (October 2) is observed as National Day in USA.

His political guru was Gopalakrishna Gokhale.

His autobiography ‘The Story of My Experiments With Truth’ was first published in Gujarati. Leo Tolstoy was his favourite novelist. But the book which greatly influenced Gandhiji was ‘Unto the Last’ by John Ruskin. The essay ‘Civil Disobedience’ by Henry Thoreau also influenced him.

The title Father of the Nation was given to Gandhiji by Subhash Chandra Bose and in return Gandhiji called him Netaji.
The title ‘Mahatma’ was given to Gandhiji by Tagore. Gandhiji once sarcastically (humorously) called jail as "His Majesty’s hostel". "Generations to come, it may scarce believe, that such a one as this ever in flesh and blood walked upon this earth" - Einstein about Gandhiji.

"Truth and non-violence are my God" - Gandhiji. "Untouchability is a crime against God and mankind" - Gandhiji. "Swaraj for me means freedom for the meanest of our countrymen" - Gandhiji.

"The light has gone out of our lives and there is darkness everywhere", Nehru about the death of Gandhiji.

Saturday, February 2, 2013

Folk Dance of India

Bihu (Assam) - a post - harvest folk dance.

Ottam Thullal (Kerala) - performed inside temples.

Chakiar Koothu (Kerala) - performed inside temples.

Yakshagana (Karnataka) - about 400 years old - revived by Dr. Shivaaram Karanth.

Bhangra (Punjab) - folk dance of harvest season, coinciding with the festival of Baisakhi.

Tamasha (Maharashtra) - Nautanki (U.P.), Garba (Gujarat), Chhow (Orissa, Bihar).

There are two forms of music in India - Carnatic and Hindustani.

Sama Veda deals with music.

Purandaradas gave shape and form to Carnatic music.

The trinity of Carnatic music is Thyagaraja, Syama Shastri and Muthuswami Dikshitar.

Classical dances of India

Bharatnatyam (Tamilnadu) - follows the principal of Natya Shastra. Rukminidevi Arundale revived it by establishing ‘Kalakshetra’ at Adayar, Chennai. Famous dancers are Yamini Krishnamurthy, Sonal Mansingh, Padma Subramanyam, Mrinalini Sarabhai.

Kathakali & Mohiniyattam (Kerala) - the poet Vallathol revived Kathakali and Mohiniyattam by establishing Kerala Kalamandalam at Cheruthuruthi, Thrissur, in 1930.

Kathak - North Indian classical dance form. Birji Maharaj, Gopi Krishna and Shambu Maharaj are the famous exponents of this dance form.

Odissi (Orissa) - Guru Kelucharan Mahapatra is at the forefront of the greatest of Odissi exponents.

Kuchipudi (Andhra Pradesh) - a variation of Bharatnatyam.

Mohiniattom (Kerala) - Swathi Thirunal encouraged this dance form.

Manipuri (Manipur) - a delicate lyrical style of dance.


Lalit Kala Academy was set up in 1954 at New Delhi.

Sangeet natak Academy was established in 1953 at New Delhi. Its function is to conduct survey research of different art forms in India.

Sahitya Academy was established in 1954 at New Delhi. Its aim is to encourage production of high class literature in several languages of India.

The National Book Trust of India was set up in 1957.

ASI - Archaeological Survey of India - was established in 1861. Its headquarters is in New Delhi.

Indian Council for Cultural Relations was established in 1950, and it strives to promote and to strengthen cultural relations and mutual understanding between India and other countries. The Council administers the Jawaharlal Nehru Award for the promotion of peace and international understanding.

NSD - National School of Drama - was set up in 1959 in Delhi.

Dances : There are two main branches of Indian dance, namely classical and folk. Classical dances are those which are based on ancient dance disciplines and have rigid rules for presentation.

Friday, February 1, 2013

HISTORY Questions

1 Swadeshi Movement was started in the year?

2 Who was the heroine of Quit India Movement?
              Aruna Asaf Ali
3 Gandhiji started his Dhandi march from
4 Who is considered as the father of History?
5 Vaso-da-Gama disovered India in the year
6 "The King of England who signed ""Magna Carta"" was"
              King John II
7 Who was the first leader of All India Trade Union Congress(AITUC)?
 Subhash Chandra Bose
8 "Who was known as ""Man of Destiny"" ?"
 Napolean Bonapart
9 Which colour was commonly used in Harappan Pottery?

10 The Indian freedom fighter who was known as 'Frontier Gandhi' is 
 Khan Abdul Gafar Khan
11 Tansen ,a great musician of his times, was in the Court of 
12 Suez Canal was opened for traffic in the year
13 """Ballot is stronger than the Bullet"" Who said this?"
              Abraham Lincoln
14 The first Olympic games was held in
 776 BC
15 The All India Muslim League was formed in 1906 at
16 Ankar Vat is a temple in
17 John. F.Kennedy was killed in the year 

18 The Congress party was formally split into extrimists and moderates at the Surat session of   1907

19 Indian National Army fought Second World War against
20 Modern Olympic games started in 1896 in
21 Which of the following dynastics was ruling over north India at the time of Alexander's invasion ?
22 The year in which Second World War started
23 Burma, presently Myanmar was separated from British India in the year
24 Who was the designer of the Statue of Liberty in USA ?
Fredric Auguste
25 First common wealth was held at
26 The fifth story of Qutabminar was added by which King
              Firos sha Tuglaque
27 French revolution began in the year
28 Sanchi portrays the art and sculpture of the 
29 The 'Master of Greek Comedy' is
30 The only women ruler of Delhi Sultanate Raziya Sultana was the daughter of 
31 Where is Black Pagoda
32 """Ashta Pradhan"" adorned the court of"
33 Beginning of Saka Era 
              78 AD
34 Indian Association was founded by
Surendranath Banerjee
35 Holly book of Judans
              The Toras
36 The year in which the ship Titanic sank
37 Israel came into existence in the year
38 Who was the founder of city of 'Amritsar' ?
              Guru Ramdas
39 Founder of Arya Samaj was
Dayananda Saraswathi
40 The word 'Hindu'as reference to the people of India was first used by
              The Arabs
41 The Civilization which developed on the banks of the river Tiber is known as
42 In which year was Jesus Christ born ?
              BC 4
43 From which country did Fascist party originate
44 The Harappan Civilization was discovered in the year
45 "The ""East India Company was founded in India durinhg the reighn of"Akbar

46 Russian revolution took place in the year

47.Who is the father of Indian Renaissance ?
 Raja Ram MohanRay

48.First Deputy Prime Minister of India ?
Sardar Vallabhai Patel

49.Who was the First Prime Minister of India to face the No-Confidence Motion ?
              Jawahar Lal Nehru

50.Who was the last Viceroy of British India ?
 Lord Canning