Showing posts with label GEOGRAPHY OF INDIA. Show all posts
Showing posts with label GEOGRAPHY OF INDIA. Show all posts

Wednesday, March 27, 2013

Mineral Resources of India


Iron Ore 

Chhattisgarh 24 % Dalli, Rajhra (Durg), Bailadila, Raoghat, Aridongri

Goa (21%) Sanquelim, Sanguem, Quepem, Satari, Ponda, Bicholim

Karnataka (20%) Bellary, Hospet, Sandur

Jharkhand (17 %) Noamund, Gua

Orissa (15 %) Gurumahisani, Sulaipat, Badampahar (Mayurbhanj),

Kiriburu, Meghahataburu, Bonai (Sundargarh).

Maharashtra Chandrapur, Ratnagiri, Bhandara

Andhra Pr. Karimnagar, Warangal, Kurnod, Cuddapah, Anantpur district

Tamil Nadu Tirthmalai, Yadapalli, Killimalai, kanjamalai, & Gondumalai


Copper 

M. P (46%) Balghat (Malanjkhand)

Rajasthan (33%) Khetri (Jhunjhunu & Alwar)

Jharkhand (21%) Singhbum

Manganese Karnataka (38%) Bellary, North Kanara, Shimoga

Orissa (17%) Kendujhar, Sundargarh, Koraput, Kalahandi, Bolangir

M.P. (10 %) Balghat

Maharashtra (8%) Nagpur & Bhandara

Bauxite 

Orissa (44 %) Koraput, Kalahandi, Sundargarh

Jharkhand (18 %) Gumla, Lohardaga, Ranchi, Palamau

Maharashtra (13%) Kolhapur, Ratnagir

Chhattisgarh (11%) Bastar, Bilaspur, Surguja district

M.P. (11 %) Mandla, Satna, Jabalpur, Shahdol

Gujarat (8 %) Jamnagar, Kachchh, Junagarh

Tamil Nadu (4 %) Salem, Nilgiri

Chromite 

Orissa (97 %) Sukinda, Kendujhar, Dhenkanal ditricts

Karnataka (2.3 %) Hassan

Maharashtra (%) Chandrapur

Jharkhand (%) Purbi & Paschmi Singhbum district

Andhra Pr (%) Khammam

Lead 

Rajasthan (80 %) Zawar region (Udaipur), Dariba, Rajura

Orissa (11%)

Andhra Pr (8 %)

Zinc
Rajasthan (99 %) Zawar –a. Pipli khan to Barla khan b. Mochia, Magra, Balaria
Sikkim

Gold 

Karnataka (67 %) Kolar, Hutti gold fields (Raichur), Gulbarga

Jharkhand (26 %) Subarnarekha, Sona, Sanjai, South koel, Garra rivers

Andhra Pr (7 %) Ramgiri Gold Fields (Anantapur district)

Silver 

Andhra Pr (42 %)

Bihar Jharkhand32

Rajashtan (25 %) Zawar

Karnataka

Nickel 

Orissa Cuttack, Kyonjhar, & Maiyurbhanj

Non Metallic Minerals


Limestone -M.P, Chattisgarh, Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan

Dolomite -Orissa (Birmitrapur in Sundergarh District-largest in India), M.P & Chattisgarh

Phosphate -Rajasthan (Udaipur) Uttaranchal (Dehradun), M.P. (Jhabua), U.P. (Lalitpur)

Kaolin -Kerala is largest producer.

Mica -Andhra Pradesh, Jharkhand (Kodarma-Large) & Rajasthan

Gypsum -Rajasthan & J & K.

Steatite- Rajasthan. It is also called soapstone/ Potstone.

Magnesite -Tamil Nadu

Pyrite- Bihar is sole producer

Graphite- Orissa, Rajasthan

Diamond -M.P. (Panna)

Beryllium -Rajathan, Jharkhand

Salt (NaCl)- Gujarat (60%), Tamil Nadu & Maharashtra


Marble- Rajasthan

Zircon -Beach Sand of Kerala

Kyanite -Singhbum distict in Jharkhand-largest. Used as refractory material

Antimony- Punjab

Asbestos -Karnataka & Rajasthan

Beryllium -Rajasthan

Sulphur -Tamil Nadu

Tin- Bihar, Jharkhand

Soils & Their Properties


1. Alluvial Soils - Most fertile, Sandy loam in texture, Rich in Potash, Phosphoric Acid, Lime & Organic matter Deficient in Nitrogen & Humus

2. Regur/Black Soils - Also classified as Chernozem. Clay content 50% Rich in iron, lime & Aluminium Poor in Nitrogen, Phosphorus & organic content

3. Red & Yellow Soils - Known as omnibus group. Rich in oxides of iron Poor in Nitrogen, Phosphorus & Humus

4. Laterite Soils - Not very fertile. Typical of tropical region with heavy rainfall Rich in iron oxide & potash Poor in nitrogen, phosphate & calcium

5. Arid Soils - Rich in phosphate Poor in Nitrogen & humus

6. Saline Soils - Known as Usara, Reh or Kallar Contain a large proportion of Sodium, Potassium & Magnesium Poor in Nitrogen & Calcium

7. Peaty & Organic - Normally heavy & black in colour. Highly acidic. Rich in organic matter Poor in phosphate & potash

8. Forest Soils - Acidic with low humus content Poor in potash, phosphorus & lime.

National Parks of India


1. Wandur National Park- Andaman & Nicobar

2. Kaziranga National Park -Assam

3. Manas National Park- Assam

4. Palamau National Park- Jharkhand

5. Hazaribagh National Park -Jharkhand (Rhinoceros)

6. Dachigam National Park- J & K – Kashmir Stag (Hangul)

7. Hemis National Park -J & K

8. Kishtwar National Park -J & K

9. Silent Valley National Park -Kerala

10. Eravikulam National Park -Kerala

11. Bandhavgarh National Park- M.P.

12. Kanha National Park- M.P.

13. Madhav National Park- M.P.

14. Pench National Park- M.P.

15. Shivpuri National Park -M.P. - Birds

16. Indravati National Park- Chhattisgarh

17. Keoladeo National Park -Rajasthan

18. Ranthambore National Park -Rajasthan

19. Desert National Park -Rajasthan

20. Sariska National Park- Rajasthan

21. Namdapha National Park -Arunachal Pradesh

22. Marine National Park- Gujarat

23. Pin Valley National Park -Himachal Pradesh


24. Bandipur National Park- Karnataka

25. Nagarhole National Park -Karnataka

26. Bannerghatta National Park -Karnataka

27. Tadoba National Park- Maharashtra

28. Boriveli National Park- Maharashtra (or Sanjay Gandhi National Park)

29. Balpakram National Park -Meghalaya

30. Nokrek National Park- Meghalaya

31. Nandan Kanan National Park- Orissa

32. Chandka Elephant Reserve- Orissa

33. Simlipal Tiger Reserve- Orissa

34. Corbett National Park -Uttaranchal

35. Rajaji National Park- Uttaranchal

36. Valley of Flower N. Park -Uttaranchal

37. Nandadevi National Park -Uttaranchal

38. Dudhwa National Park- U.P.

39. Govind National Park- U.P.

Wildlife Sanctuaries of India


1. Pakhal Wildlife Sanctuary -Andhra Pradesh

2. Parambikulam Wildlife Sanctuary -Tamil Nadu

3. Srisailam Wildlife Sanctuary -Andhra Pradesh

4. Garampani Wildlife Sanctuary- Assam

5. Kaimur wildlife Sanctuary -Bihar (largest)

6. Dandeli Wildlife Sanctuary -Karnataka

7. Periyar Wildlife sanctuary- Kerala

8. National Chambal Wildlife Sanctuary -M.P., U.P & Rajasthan

9. Great Indian Bustard Sanctuary- Maharashtra (Ahmednagar)

10. Gomardha Wildlife Sanctuary- Chhattisgarh

11. Harike Headworks- Punjab

12. Jaldapara Wildlife sanctuary- West Bengal

13. Sultanpur Bird Sanctuary- Haryana

14. Raganathittu Wildlife Sanctuary -Karnataka

15. Madumalai Sanctuary -Tamil Nadu

16. Pulicat Sanctuary -Andhra Pradesh

17. Chandraprabha Wildlife Sanctuary- U.P (Varanasi)

18. Ranganthitoo Bird Sanctury -Karnataka

19. Vedanthangal Bird Sanctuary -Tamil Nadu

Rivers: Origin & Length


     River  -   Kms  -   Origin  -   Characteristics
1. Indus- 2900 -Mansarovar -Shyok, Dras, Gartang, Nubra, Hunza, Zanskar, Shigar. Kabul, Kurram, Tochi, Viboa, Sangar.

2. Jhelum -400- Verinag -Flows through Wular lake & along Indo Pak border.

3. Chenab -1180- Bara-Lacha -Largest Indus tributary. Formed by Chandra & Bhaga.

4. Ravi -725 -Rohtang Pass -Flows through Chamba valley.

5. Beas -470 -Beas Kund -Flows through Kullu valley & joins Satluj near Harike

6. Sutlej -1050 -Rakas Lake -Passes through Ship kila. Govind Sagar lake at Bhakra


7. Ganga -2525 Gangotri -Bhagirathi meets Alaknanda at Devprayag. It splits into Bhagirathi-Hugli & Padma below Farrakha in Malda distt.

8. Yamuna -1300 Yamunotri -Tons, Giri, Asan, Hindan, Rind, Sengar, Enters Ganga plain at Paonta Sahib.

9. Chambal- 960 -Mhow -Gandhisagar dam at Kota. Banas (left), Kali & Sind (right)

10. Gandak- Everest & Dhulagiri -Joins Ganga at Sonpur near Patna

11. Kosi -730- Everest & Kanchenjunga- Its main stream is Arun. Joined by Sun kosi from the west & Tamur Kosi from the east

12. Ramganga- 600- Kumaon Hills Joins Ganga near Kanauj

13. Sarda (Saryu) -Milam Glacier -Along Indo Nepal border it is called Kali. Joins Ghaghara.

14. Mahananda -Darjeeliing Hills- It is the last left bank tributary of the Ganga

15. Son- Amarkantak -Joins Ganga at Patna

16. Damodar -540 -Barakar is main tributary. Joins Hugli

17. Ghaghara -1180 -Mapchachungo glacier -Meets Ganga at Chapra.

18. Gomti -Pilibhit Distt -Lucknow situated on its bank. Kathna & Sarayan tributaries.

19. Brahmaputra -2900 -Near Mansarovar- Receives Dibang & Lohit on left bank & then known as Brahmaputra. Burhi Dihing, Dhansari & Kalang (left) & Subansari, Kamang, Manas & Sankosh.

20. Tista- Chitamu lake (Tibet)- Forms Sivok Gola Pass in Darjeeling.

21. Surma -900 -Meghna is the name of Brahmaputra after its confluence with Surma. Surma is distributary of river Barak.

22. Mahanadi -850 -Sihawa (near Raipur)- Tel, Ib, Seonath, Hasdeo, Mand, Jonking

23. Godavari- 1465- Nashik- Penganga, Wardha, Wainganga, Sabari, Idravati, Manjra & Pranhita.


24. Krishna- 1400 -Mahabaleshwar- Koyna, Yerla, Verna, Panchganga, Dudhgana, Musi, Tungabhadra, Bhima

25. Cauveri -800- Brahmagiri Hills (Coorg) -Amravati, Hemavati, Akravati, Herangi, Shimsa, Lakshmantirtha, Lokpavani, Kabbani.

26. Narmada -1300- Amarkantak- Burhner, Banjar, Shar, Shakkar, Dudhi, Tawa, Hiran, Baran

27. Tapti -724- Betul Distt -Parna, Veghar, Girna, Bori, Panhara, Betul

28. Sabarmati -320- Mewar Hills

29. Brahmani -800 -Formed by confluence of Koel & Sankh. Baitrani joins later

30. Subarnarekha -400 -S-W of Ranchi

31. Luni -320- Arawallis Ends in Sahni marshes.- Sarsuti, Bundi, Sukri joins it


Forests & Their Species


1. Tropical Evergreen -Teak, Rosewood, Ebony, Ironwood, Bamboo, Canes, Champa, Sal, Mahua, Sandal & Sheesham

2. Tropical Dry Evergreen- Khirni, Jamun, Khokko, Ritha, Tamarind, Neem, Toddy Palm, Cane.

3. Tropical Dry Deciduous -Teak, Tendu, Sal, Amaltas, Palas, Rose-wood, Axlewood, Bijsal, Khair, Satinwood, Ghant, Pepal & Semal

4. Swamp Forests- Sundari tree, Nipa Friticans (a Palm), Epiphytes.

5. Himalaya Temperate- Oak, Deodar, Celtis, Maple, Chestnut.

6. Alpine -Rhododendron, Birch, Fir, Spruce, Plum

Tribal Groups of India


1. Gonds- Largest tribe found in M.P., Jharkhand, A.P., Orissa & Maharashtra.

2. Bhils -M.P, Gujarat, Rajasthan, A.P., Karnataka, Tripura

3. Santhals- West Bengal, Bihar-Jharkhand & Orissa

4. Minas- Rajasthan & MP. Account for 50% tribal population of Rajasthan

5. Oraons- Bihar-Jharkhand, M.P.-Chattisgarh, Orissa, West Bengal & Maharashtra. Speak Kurukh Language

6. Mundas -Jharkhand, Chattisgarh, Orissa, West Bengal & Tripura

7. Khonds -Orissa is mainland. Also found in Bihar, AP, MP, West Bengal.

8. Tharu -Uttaranchal & MP

9. Chenchu- Andhra Pradesh

10. Todas -Nilgiri Hills. Classic example of polyandry.

11. Lahaula -Himachal Pradesh

12. Adivasis- Bastar district, Chattisgarh

13. Badagas- Nilgiri region, Tamil Nadu

14. Baiga- M.P.

15. Bakkarwals -J & K

16. Bhotias- Uttaranchal, Sikkim & West Bengal

17. Bhuia -M.P.

18. Birhors -M.P., Chattisgarh, Jharkhand & Orissa

19. Gaddis -Himachal Pradesh

20. Gujjars -J&K & Himachal Pradesh

21. Irula -Tamil Nadu

22. Kanikar -Tamil Nadu

23. Katkari- M.P.

24. Kharia -M.P.

25. Khasa -Jaunsar region, Uttaranchal

26. Lahualas- Lahual region, Himachal Pradesh

27. Moplahs- Muslims of Malabar district, Kerala

28. Sabra -M.P.

29. Kol- M.P. & Maharashtra

30. Kolam -Andhra Pradesh

31. Kotas -Nilgiri Hills

32. Murias -Bastar District, Chattisgarh

33. Uralis -Kerala

34. Varlis -Maharashtra, Gujarat, Dadra & Nagar Haveli

35. Yurva -Tamil Nadu


36. Khasis -Meghalaya & Tripura

37. Mikirs- Assam

38. Kukis -Manipur, Assam, Nagaland & Tripura

39. Angami -Nagaland

40. Ao- Nagaland

41. Apatani- Arunachal Pradesh

42. Chutra- Assam

43. Garos- Meghalaya & Assam

44. Jaintia -Meghalaya & Assam

45. Sema -Nagaland

46. Lushai -Mizoram & Tripura

47. Lepchas -Original Tribals of Sikkim

48. Abors- Arunachal Pradesh

49. Chakma- Tripura

50. Chang- A Naga tribe

51. Gallong -Tribe of Arunachal Pradesh

52. Jarawas -Andaman & Nicobar. Negrito

53. Onges -Andaman & Nicobar. Negritos racial stock.

54. Shompens -Andaman & Nicobar. Belong to mongoloid stock like nicobarese & inhabit Great Nicobar.

55. Sentinelese -Andaman & Nicobar. Inhabit sentinel island. Negrito